Thursday, June 7, 2012

Learning Media Papers

a. Background
In teaching and learning, two very important elements are the methods of teaching and learning media. In this paper will discuss how the differences between the learning media, media education and media in learning English. In teaching methodology there are two of the most prominent aspects of the methods of teaching and medical education as a teaching tool. While the assessment is to measure or determine the level reached at least the purpose of teaching. Position of media education as a teaching tool in the component methodology, as one of the learning environment is set by the teacher. Here also will be discussed the use of learning media. As we know that many kinds of learning media. For good teaching and learning process we must use appropriate learning media. More detail can be seen in the description in this paper. 

b. Purpose
A. Knowing the Definition of Learning Media
2. Knowing the difference Learning with Media Media Education and Media
3. Knowing the benefits of instructional media in teaching english

A. Understanding
The word media is derived from the Latin medius, which literally means "middle", "intermediate", or "introduction". In Arabic, the media is the medium () or the introductory message from the sender to the receiver of the message. According to Gerlach and Ely (1971), when the media generally understood is the human, material or events that establish the conditions which enable the pupils to acquire knowledge, skills or attitudes. So that teachers, textbooks and school environment marupakan media. Fleming (1987: 234) states the media serves to organize an effective relationship between the two parties, namely the students and the content.

Hainich et al (1982) suggested the term media as an intermediary that transmits information between the source and receiver. In conclusion, the media is anything that can be used to deliver messages from the sender to the receiver. So as to stimulate thoughts, feelings, concerns and interests of students so that learning occurs.

• Learning Media
Learning Media is the media that carry messages or information aimed at instructional or teaching purposes containing by Gagne and Briggs (1975) includes instructional media tools that are physically used to convey the contents of teaching materials consisting of books, tape recorders, cassettes, video camera, video recorder, film, slides (images), photographs, images, graphics, television and computer.

• Media Education
The meaning of educational media include:
  • Media education has a sense of physical (hardware) or hardware, that is one thing that can be seen, heard or touched with panea senses.
  • Media education has a nonphysical sense (software) or software, the content of the message contained in the hardware that is content to be conveyed to students.
  • There is an emphasis on educational media and audio visual.
  • Media education has the understanding of the tools in the learning process both inside and outside the classroom.
  • Media education can be used in mass (radio, TV), large and small groups (films, slides, video, OHP), or individual (module, computer, radio, tape / cassette, video recorder) 
So in conclusion, media education is the medium that carries the information or messages as a source of learning, whether in the form of software and hardware. Examples of educational media are drawings, photographs, sketches, diagrams, charts / charts, graphs, cartoons, posters, radio and others.

• Mass Media

Mass media comes from two words: media and the masses. Media is a tool or intermediary, while the masses are the people and the general public. So it can be concluded that mass media is an intermediary to pass messages to the public or the people. The message contains the required information society, both on the political, social, economic, and cultural. So that the existence of mass media society will have knowledge of the country. Examples of the mass media are newspapers, and newspapers.

B. Benefits of Learning Media
One reason for the use of instructional media is related to the benefits of instructional media for classroom teaching and learning success. One aspect that determines success in teaching and learning is the selection of appropriate learning media.

According Hamalik (1986), appropriate learning media can raise the motivation, the desire of interest, and excitement to the students. So as to help understanding, presenting data with interesting and reliable, facilitates the interpretation of data, condense the information.

As for why appropriate learning media can bring success in learning and teaching in the classroom, according to Levie and Lentz (1982), it is because the instructional media especially the visual media has four functions, namely:
  • The function of attention, which can attract and direct attention to the students to concentrate on the content associated with the displayed visual meaning or subject matter and accompanying text.
  • affective functions, which can arouse emotions and attitudes of students.
  • Cognitive function, namely to facilitate the aim of understanding and considering the information / message contained in the image.
  • The function of compensations, which can accommodate students who are weak and slow to accept and understand the content being presented with a text or verbally. 
The reasons why the media can enhance the learning process of student learning are:

a. The first reason is related to teaching media menfaat itself, among others:

1. Teaching more attractive for students, so the motivation to learn. 
2. More clearly the meaning of teaching materials, so as to master the learning objectives as well.
3. Teaching methods will vary
4. Students can learn a lot more activities, such as observing, performing, demonstrating and others.

b. The second reason is in accordance with the level of student thinking. Starting from concrete to abstract thinking stage, starting from simple to complex thinking. Because the presence of teaching abstract things that can dikonkretkan, and complex things can be simplified. Those are some reasons why the media can enhance the success of learning in teaching and learning.

C. Media differences in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional
A. Media Two Dimensions 

Media is often called the media two-dimensional graphics. Two-dimensional media is media that has length and width. Graphics as a medium of instruction can combine facts, ideas clearly and strongly through a combination of phrases or graphics. The words and numbers are used as headings and explanations to graphs, charts, diagrams, posters, cartoons and comics. While the sketches, photographs and even symbol is used to interpret the facts, understanding, and the idea that in essence as a graphical representation. Examples of two-dimensional media graphics C medium, namely:

a. Chart
The combination of graphics and media images designed to visualize the logical and orderly about the basic facts of the idea. Function chart is to show relationships, comparisons, relative amounts, development, processing, classification and organization.

b. Diagram
That is a simple picture designed to show a reciprocal relationship, especially with lines.

c. Graph
Presenting data that is framed. Graphs are more interesting integration with a number of tabulated data in good order. Purpose of the chart is showing the comparison, qualitative information quickly and simply. Several kinds of graphs such that a line graph, bar, circle, or plates and charts.

d. Poster
Namely the combination of visual design with a strong meaning and message in order to capture the attention of passers-by but long enough to instill the idea of ​​meaning in his memory. Useful for motivational posters, warning and creative experience.

e. Cartoon
Namely in the form of painting or drawing caricatures of people, ideas, or situations that are designed to influence public opinion.

f. Comic
Which is a cartoon that expresses the character and act out a story in a sequence that is closely associated with the image and is designed to provide entertainment to the reader.

2. Three Dimensional Media

Namely media that has length, width and content. Three-dimensional media are often used is a model and a doll. 3-dimensional model is a replica of a real object that is too big, too distant, too small, too expensive, too rare, too complex to be brought into the classroom, and students are learning in their original form.

1) The type and usage models

a) solid model (solid model), which shows the outer surface of the object and often discard the confusing parts of the main ideas of form, color and composition. Examples of solid models of the dolls, flags, balls, human anatomy. Solid models in order to help and serve the students as the information over a range of knowledge that students understand the lesson.

b) Model penanpang (cuteway model), which shows how an object looks, if the surface is removed to determine the composition of the interior. This model is useful for the subjects biology, because it serves to replace the real object.

c) Model of work (working model), which is a clone of the object which shows the exterior of the original object. Useful to clarify the provision of materials to students.

d) Mock-ups, the simplification of the basic composition and a process or system that is more complicated. Teachers use mock-ups to show the form of a variety of real objects such as condenser, condenser, tube lights and loudspeakers, symbol-a symbol that is different from what is contained in the diagram.

e) Diorama, which is a 3-dimensional view of the mini is actually aimed at describing the scene.

2) Types of dolls and their use
For example a hand puppet, and puppets that can be used to make students become more interested in learning.

D. Various forms of audio visual media
Audio visual media composed of two words, namely audio and visual. Audio can be heard or auditory means, while the visual is that appears to the eye or the looks. So the audio visual media are media that can be heard and can also be seen by our senses. Examples of audio visual media of television and computer.

Audio Visual media excess, namely:

o In the television; television is direct, it can bring the real world into the house and into classes, such as people, places, and events, through direct broadcasting / recording.
o Save time teachers and students.
o Television is direct and tangible, so that students can clearly see what else the program aired and can maximize the function senses the eyes and ears.
o attracting more students
o Lessons are more varied and impressive
o Reaching broad

Weaknesses of audio visual media are:
o Diversity in the TV broadcast of teachers makes it difficult to choose which one is good news and in accordance with the lessons.
o Equipment and funds that are not possible.
o Arresting the teacher, having to explain every event there again.
o Not every teacher is able to explain the events that there is gambling.

E. Criteria for selection of media studies
Factors to be considered in the selection of media education are as follows

- The relevance of educational provision of educational media
- Feasibility of provision of educational media educational
- Ease of procurement of educational media educational

Must be recognized that each medium has its disadvantages and kelebiha. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of the medium becomes important to minimize the weaknesses of the media gurudapat selected by the teacher and can directly select the desired criteria.
Criteria for selection of instructional media, namely:

In accordance with the objectives to be achieved. Media are selected based on a predetermined instructional objectives in terms of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Alignment (validity). Media should be appropriate to support the content of its facts, concepts, principles or generalizations.

Media should be practical, flexible and enduring. If not available time, funds, or other resources to produce, not to be forced. Media is expensive and takes a long time is not guaranteed. As the best medium. So that teachers can choose the media that exist, easily available and easily made by the teacher. Selected media should be used wherever and whenever with existing equipment in the surrounding environment, and easy to carry and moved everywhere.

Media should be used properly and skilled teachers. Whatever the medium, the teacher must be able to use in the learning process. Computer, projector transparencies (OHP), projector slides, and movies, and other sophisticated equipment will not mean anything if teachers have not been able to use it in teaching and learning in the classroom.

Technical quality. Development of both visual images and photographs must meet certain technical requirements. Visual example on the slide must be clear and you'll enjoy the information or message to be conveyed and should not be distracted by other elements that form the background.

The medium used should match the level of student thinking. The media used must be able to support and assist students' understanding of the lesson so that the learning process can proceed smoothly and in accordance with the learning objectives to be achieved.
According to Prof. Drs Hartono Kasmadi M.Sc that in selecting educational media to consider the four areas: production, learners, content, and teachers.

1) Consideration of the production
- Availabilty
- Cost
- Physical condition
- Accessibility to student
- Emotional impact.
2) Consideration of the participants
- Students characeristics
- Students relevance
- Students involvement
3) Consideration of the content
- Curriculair - relevance
- Content-soundness
- Presentation
4) Consideration of teacher
- Teacher-Utilization
- Teacher peace of mind

Media is an intermediary (tools) to achieve the learning objectives. The use of appropriate media to support the success of the learning process. Media two-dimensional and three-dimensional and each has different strengths and weaknesses of its own. Instructional media described above can be applied in the teaching of English. It would be easier for teachers and students in achieving learning objectives. As we know that many kinds of learning media. For good teaching and learning process we must use appropriate learning media. Therefore, teachers must be able to choose the media according to the learning materials so that learning objectives can be met effectively and smoothly.
  • Arsyad, Azhar. , 2006. Learning Media. London: King Grafindo Persada.
  • Danim, Sudarbuan. Of 1995. Media Communication Education. New York: Literacy. 
  • Sudjana, Nana and Ahmad Rivai.2002. Teaching the media. New York: New Light Algensindo.
  • S. Sadiman, Arief, et al. Media Education. New York: Eagle Press 
  • Harjanto. Planning instruction. Rineka copyright
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