Thursday, June 7, 2012


A. Preliminary

In historical perspective, Indonesia is a unique Muslim country, is located very far from the center lahimya Islam (Mecca). Although the new Islam entered Indonesia in the seventh century, the international community recognizes that Indonesia is one country that is predominantly Muslim. This is one indicator of the success of Islamic Education in Indonesia. 

Religious Institutions of Islam in Indonesia was first established in the form of pesantren (Sarijo, 1980; Dhofier, 1982). With karaktemya typical "religious oriented", boarding schools have been able to lay the foundations of a strong religious education. The students not only provided an understanding of the teachings of Islam but also the ability to spread and defend Islam.

The entry model of school education have an impact of less favorable to the Muslims, which led to the birth of the dichotomy of science of religion (Islam) and secular science (general science and secular science of Christianity). Dualism confrontational model of education that has inspired the emergence of the reform movement in education in the early twentieth century. The reform movement was intended to accommodate the school education system into a boarding school environment (Toha and Mu'thi, 1998). Style education model was quickly spread not only over the island of Java, but also outside of Java. From there the embryo madrasah was born.

B. Existence of the Madrasah
Madrasah as an institution of Islamic education in Indonesia is relatively younger than the pesantren. He was born in the 20th century with the advent of the Kingdom of Surakarta Madrasah Uloom Manba'ul 1905 and Adabiyah School, founded by Sheikh Ahmad Abdullah in West Sumatra in 1909 (Malik Fajar, 1998). Madrasah stood on the initiative and the realization of renewal of the Islamic educational system that has been there. Renewal, according to Karl Sternbrink (1986), includes three things: 

A. Business perfected pesantren education system,
2. Adjustments to the system of Western education, and
3. Efforts to bridge the gap between traditional pesantren education system and the system of Western education.

Madrasa as an institution of Islamic education is now placed as school education in the national education system. SKB emergence of three ministers (Minister of Religious Affairs, Ministry of Education and Culture, and Minister of the Interior) indicates that the existence of madrassas is strong enough hand in hand with public schools. In addition, the emergence of three ministerial decree was also considered as a positive step for improving the quality of madrasah both of status, the value of a diploma and curriculum (Malik Fajar, 1998). In one of the mentioned decree dictum consider the need for measures taken to improve the quality of education at that madrasa graduates of madrasahs can continue or move into public schools from elementary school through college.

C. Madrasah problem
As the innovation efforts in the Education System of Islam, madrasas are not free from various problems faced. Problems-problems, according to Darmu'in (1998), among others: 

A. Madrasas have lost the root of its history, meaning the existence of Islamic schools is not a continuation schools, although acknowledged that boarding is a form of Islamic schools in Indonesia.

2. There is a duality of meaning of the madrasah. On the one hand, identified with madrasah school curriculum because it has a charge in relatively the same as public schools. On the other hand, regarded as a madrasah boarding school with a classical system that became known as madrasas diniyah.

Thus, as a sub system of national education, Islamic schools do not have identities that can be distinguished from other educational institutions. Alignment effect madrassas with public schools that resulted in reduction in the proportion of religious education from 60% religious and 40% to 30% public and 70% common religion perceived as challenges that undermine the existence of Islamic education. Some of the problems that arise later, such as:

A. The reduced charge of religious education materials. It is seen as a way of understanding the silting of religion, because religion curriculum before the decree has not felt able to print a true Muslim, let alone further reduced.

2. Madrasah graduate department responsibilities. Are not profound religious knowledge while knowledge is generally too low.

Recognized that the model of madrasa education in the state legislation, led to dualism education system in Indonesia. The duality of education in Indonesia has become a dilemma that can not be resolved until now. This dualism is not only concerned with the teaching system but also leads to the scientific. Narrow mindset that tends to open the gap between the Islamic religious sciences and general sciences. As if emerging science of Islam and science are not Muslim (kafir). Yet this is precisely the dichotomy of science claim to be experts of Islamic education to try to unify the two.

The duality of Islamic education also appeared in the managerial field, especially in private institutions. Private institutions generally have two top manager is the head of Islamic and chairman (or trustee). Although there have been two separate lines of authority are top managers, the academic head of the madrassas in control while the chairman of the foundation (the board) in charge of the provision of facilities and infrastructure, often in the practice of overlapping. This problem is usually worse if the board of trustees is there that a faculty member. In addition there is the impression of spying on Islamic leadership, as well as the teaching staff disciplinary actions (often late), head of the madrasas feel helpless menegumya.

Management practices at the school often exhibit the traditional management model, the management model of paternalistic or feudal. Such seniority domination sometimes interfere with the development and improvement of education quality. The emergence of innovative creativity of young people sometimes understood as an attitude that does not respect seniors. Such a condition leads to negative extremes, until the impression that the straightening step to correct errors or deemed disposition of senior step su'ul adab.

Dualism also occur in educational management training conducted by the department, namely the Ministry of National Education (MONE) and Ministry of Religious Affairs (MORA). Madrasah Development under the auspices of Ministry of Religious Affairs dealing with the public schools under the Education Ministry building often creates jealousy since the level (SD and MI) and college students. Allocation of funds, attention, managerial coaching, books and instructional media support, and placement of teachers, scholarships to further education is often not the same between the received by public schools (Education Ministry) with the madrasah (MORA).

The gap between the private Islamic schools and madrassas country also seems to be unresolved issues resolved. Gap covered such issues as the views of teachers, facilities and infrastructure, the quality of student input, etc. all of which affect, either directly or indirectly to the quality of education. That is because the emergence of three ministerial decree has not been offset provision of teachers, books and other equipment from the relevant departments (Malik Fajar, 1998).

D. Madrasas in Modern Era
Public perception of madrassas in the more recent modern era to make madrassa education as a unique institution. In the current science and technology is growing rapidly, at a time when modern philosophy of human life religious crisis (Haedar Nasir, 1999) and in free trade when the world is moving towards the gate, the existence of madrassas seemed more necessary. 

Regardless of the various problems encountered, whether originating from within the system such as problem management, input quality and condition of infrastructure facilities, as well as from outside the system as a rigid accreditation requirements and other rules that give the impression madrasas as 'cash cows', madrassas have distinctive characteristics not shared by other educational models that became one beacon of hope for modern man to overcome the dryness of the heart of religious nuances and avoid the phenomenon of demoralization and dehumanization that has been rampant in line with technological progress and material civilization. As a bridge between the model and model educational boarding school education, madrasah to be very flexible accommodated in a variety of environments. In boarding schools, madrasas are not foreign goods, because it is the birth of the madrasa is an innovative education model schools. With a neatly organized curriculum, the students more easily find out the extent to which the level of mastery of the material being studied.

With modern teaching methods are accompanied by audio visual aids, impression of shabby, dirty, orthodox, and that as long as it's exclusive boarding school attached to gradually eroded. Increasingly metropolitan society is not ashamed to come and even put their children to boarding schools with a model of Islamic education. Both those who simply intend to put their child in a good environment (religious) to truly master the science developed at the school, the more people scramble to get the facilities there. Gontor Roxburgh Modern Boarding School, for example, is full of sons and daughters of tycoons, all thinkers list without pay, complete the facility to obtain. Ma'had Al-Olive Haurgelis located in the area (about 30 KM from the city center Indramayu), recently founded in 1994, has also been the target of modern society to the upper middle class, even some students from friendly countries, such as Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam. Thus, the model of Islamic education in boarding schools have a high bargaining power.

Models such modern boarding school, has now sprung up in various areas. In District Sukorejo, Kendal regency for example, there is also a boarding school "Darul Amanah" the priority of foreign languages ​​namely Arabic and English. Boarding school founded by the alumni of Boarding Schools Modem Gontor Roxburgh in 1990 it has housed about 1300 students (students).

See reality as such, demands the development of madrasah recently considered quite high. Madrasah development at the school generally located outside the city are found to be sufficient to meet the demands of society. Therefore many madrasah education model emerged in the middle of the city, both in towns and in metropolitan cities. Although many madrasas are growing out of boarding schools, religious cultural, moral and religious ethics remains the hallmark of an Islamic educational institution. Social ethics, behavior and performance apparel santrinya the main attraction, the living world promises happiness hereafter as the purpose of Islamic education (al-Abrasyi, 1970; Jalaluddin and Said, 1996).

Reality shows that the practice of the national education curriculum created and arranged in such a way even been refined many times, not only fails to display the human figure Indonesia with personality intact, even it is difficult to imagine its realization. General education (non-Islamic), which became the golden child of the government, under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, has failed to demonstrate the glory of his identity for more than three decades. The mission of education who want to give birth to intelligent human beings who controlled the progress of science and technology with the power of faith and piety plus noble character, still remain at the ideal level is written in the arrangement of the ideals (of legislation). Apparently this is one of the indicators which the government later admitted the existence of madrassas in part of the national education system.

Moral education is carried out through various means both curricular (National Education and National Defense, or Civics) and co-curricular (Upgrading P-4) has given rise to the political elite who are not able to appear as Hanz hasanah (a good example) and even gives the impression of corrupt and fool the people . Upgrading activities and quiz P-4 (Guidelines appreciation and practice of Pancasila) is nothing more than ceremonial activity characteristics. So called because the event has passed the champions of the participants are best able to memorize the handbook and provide justification, not those who are able to implement Pancsila values ​​in everyday life. Thus, participants are upgrading or P-4 quiz vying to memorize the items Pancasila without trying to implement them in real life. That is among the factors that affect this nation's moral decline (Dradjat, 1971).

After the mental and moral depravity rampant and widespread, new people wake up and realize that moral education has been done is more oriented to the justification of political education to all who are born on the meaning of the blessing of the ruling regime. Moral development efforts aimed at improving human dignity in accordance with the ideals enshrined in national legislation has been ruled out and a lot of hope.

Educational success is based on a quantitative theory of Benjamin S. Bloom (1956), known by the name of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, which includes three domains, namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor. However, the success of the output (graduate) education is a cognitive success. That is, children who never pray too, if he can do the test PAL (Islamic Education) well then he can pass (successfully), and if the value is good, so he can be accepted at a higher level of education. As with the outcome (performance) of a Madrasah graduates, however, the value of report cards and exam results, which are attached to religious moral attitudes and behavior will be the benchmark for the success of the institution into which he studied. That's why the successful out-come is called the success of affective and psychomotor. For educational institutions "Madrasah", the standard of success (outputs and outcomes) that includes three domains taxonomy of educational objectives, can not be separated. In addition to educating Madrasah intelligence, he also foster students' moral and character (Al-Abrasyi, 1970, Abdullah, 1994). That was a plus compared to public school madrasas that emphasize intellectual development of intelligence (cognitive aspects).

F. Role of Civil Society in Madrasah Quality Improvement
The emergence of regional autonomy and decentralization policy in education which aims to provide opportunities for learners to acquire skills, knowledge, and attitudes that can contribute to society, not surprisingly the managers of the madrasas. Madrasah also survive in conditions of very rapid changes in the curriculum, because life is not imitation the madrasah national curriculum. Decentralization of management authorizes the school to implement PBM conditioned in accordance with the requirements for local needs. Thus, the madrasa get more fresh air to be able to exist in regulating their activities without government intervention in order to achieve improved quality of education. Through the learning process based on local needs, the curriculum is not burdened with any other material that really has not, or even irrelevant to improved knowledge and skills of students in these levels. Effectiveness of teaching and learning process is expected to be achieved resulting in a higher learning achievement. 

The increased government involvement in education led to the managers of madrasas focus on additional programs as a means of improving the quality of education. Remedial programs and courses to improve cognitive development, social and emotional development of students who are capable of low level of economic and learning outcomes are compensation programs, not to replace existing programs.

As an educational institution that was born from the public, Islamic schools more easily integrate external environment into the organization of education, so as to create an atmosphere of togetherness and belonging are high with high involvement of the community. Community involvement is no longer limited as the role of parents (PTA) which only involve themselves in school children. But involvement based on the ownership of the environment.

In accordance with the spirit of decentralization that absorbed the aspirations and partisipasai community in the development and improvement of the quality of education, public awareness is required to have a high attention to educational institutions in the local environment. It can foster an attitude of ownership by contributing high both in the field of material, control management, coaching, and other forms of participation in order to improve further the existence of madrassas became the pride of the local environment.

Finally the institution of Islamic madrassa as a life of, by and for people not to get our hands touch the mind and all. Improved quality will not be realized without the contribution of all parties. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of madrasah needs to be assisted, defended and championed.

  • Al-Abrasyi, Moh. Athiyah, (1970). Basic fundamentals of Islamic Education, the Crescent Star.
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  • Darmuin (1998). Prospects of Islamic Education in Indonesia: A Review of the boarding school and Madrasah. In Chabib Thoha and Abdul Muth'i. PBM-PAI in Schools: Teaching and Learning and the existence of Islamic Education. New York: Library Student work equally with the Faculty of Tarbiyah OTHER Walisongo Semarang.
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  • Sternbrink. KA (1986). Boarding school, Madrasah and Schools. New York: LP3ES.
  • Thoha, Chabib, and Muth'i, A. (1998). PBM-PAI in Schools: Teaching and Learning and the existence of Islamic Education. New York: Library Student working with Fak. OTHER Tarbiyah Walisongo Sernarang.
  • Education System Law Nasinal (RI Act, No.2 of 1989) and Implementation Regulations, (1994). New York: Graphic rays.
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