Thursday, June 7, 2012

Architecture of Islam and Sufism

In this paper will not be discussed again on the definition, definition of Sufism, mysticism or spirituality because they diangggap understand. That little needs to be explained later that the art of Islamic architecture has a strong relationship with the mystical dimensions and nuances of mystical notions that influenced the mystical tradition of ancient Persia (the teachings of Zoroaster) and Hinduism. For example, the authors will describe a little about building the palace architecture in Java. Influence of these ideologies from outside the mingling with Islamic spiritual values, but still within the framework of Islamic spirituality. Hopefully this paper useful.

It is difficult to find a relationship between the architecture of Islamic spirituality. The difficulty comes from the striking differences of these two problems. On the one hand, with regard to issues of spirituality purification of the human psyche, behavior and everything related to the inner elements in view of the existence of the divine, the universe and himself. While the art of architecture is the work of human creativity is influenced by various factors in making a building into a work of art and architectural value.

However, when examined in depth, it must be admitted that the art of Islamic architecture has indeed been influenced by the values ​​of Sufism, Sufism has influenced art as music and literary arts in Islam. As a basic idea that can be adduced for the existence of such a relationship, Ernst explained that in nonakademik sources, including those published by the Sufi orders, mystics describe as the spirit of universal Sufism is the essence of all religions. The term Sufism in this case a broader sense, includes not only the people who describe themselves or others as described by mystics, but also all the historical traditions, texts, cultural artifacts, and practices associated with the Sufis. [1] Sufism in this broad sense, eventually entering the various areas of human life, as well as in art or architecture building.

Only, the difference is clearly demonstrated that in art, literature and music as found in historical data, is clearly known that one of the factors that affect the arts of music and literary arts by the values ​​of the Sufi mysticism due to plunge in the changing work- The artwork included in the strong influence of Sufism as a form of appreciation or disclosure of any that they feel in relation to God, so that we can recognize the existence of Sufi Sufi music or literature. This is indicated by the appearance of the famous Sufi mystics such as Jalal ad-Din Rumi, Ruzbihan Baqli, or Hamzah Fansuri which they were mentioned as a famous Sufi poet and bard. While the art of architecture, we do not know and barely aware of the Sufi mystics who are experts in the fields of architecture, [2], especially in Islamic architecture. Therefore, there is no clear relationship between Sufism and Islamic architecture in addition to the lack of literature that discusses this.

This paper tries to explain the relationship between Sufism in Islamic architecture. It should be noted that mysticism is not directly related to Islamic architecture, but the values ​​or dimensions of Sufism is the influence of Islamic architectural art. Dimensions of spirituality that can be called as the views of the inner to the divine reflected or symbolized in the art of building from the early Islamic architecture to the present. We will see from the various forms or patterns that exist in every Islamic architecture, which starts from the Kaaba as the first shrine of the Muslims, mosques, castles / palaces, houses, and even in different buildings in a city of Islam, have values ​​of spirituality and has the meanings of each form that refers to the Islamic values ​​and reflect a strong sense of divinity.


Art is the product of a conscious activity that aims to gain or achieve aesthetic value. Therefore, it often connotes the art of aesthetics or beauty. Talk about art, it will include an extensive discussion. Art is also divided into several types such as music, literary arts, sculpture and carving, dance, sound, art, architecture and so on.

In the Islamic concept of God is central to this aesthetic values. God loves beauty and created everything beautifully according to the portions. The purpose of art in Islam is the same concept with the goal of a Muslim life, the search for material and spiritual happiness in the world and the hereafter under the auspices of the pleasure of Allah swt. Islamic art enshrined in the Muslim purpose of human life is always to please God. Therefore, the concepts of Islamic art is more teosentrik, in contrast to the concepts of non-Islamic art that is anthropocentric. [3]

Architecture (architecture) as part of the art, an art or a science that deals with the design and manufacture of a building. [4] Architecture in Arabic is called `umran, Bunyan, which means a building or buildings. For art, architecture or building techniques is called "al-mi` handasah mar ". While al-muhandis is the designation for an architect, builders or someone who specializes geometry. [5]

Judging from defenisinya, Islamic architecture is the architecture was created for and by Muslims to worship and serve Allah SWT, also showed attachment to the creature with his Creator, which has the function of both religious and secular functions, resulting in the Islamic countries. [6] architecture that has a religious function, such as mosques, madrasas, tombs and buildings used as places of worship. While that has a secular function, such as castles, houses, castles and so on. The term is analogous to mention these are the types of buildings are buildings that are sacred and profane.

The values ​​of Spirituality in Islamic architecture is usually balanced with the aesthetic values ​​they have. A good collaboration between outer beauty with inner values ​​contained in it, making the architecture of Islam as one of the best in the ranks of the development of other architectures outside of Islam. On this, Kidwai explained: "Building Islam is the best example of fusion of aesthetic expression differences in a broad view. A wide range of development remain under the umbrella of Islamic art building. Each architecture has its own privileges, but they all converge at the level of the leading as something un-Islamic, just anywhere in the world. "[7]

Islamic architecture is the architecture related to the arrangement of space and building design. The entire architecture of the Islamic holy always directed to achieve the basic goal of putting humans in the presence of God through the sacralization of space created, arranged and adapted to various architectural techniques. In Islamic architecture, sacralization is generally achieved by setting the polarization of space in the presence of the Kaaba, the center of the earth is surrounded by millions of Muslim pilgrims every season and become a mecca for all Muslims when to pray every day. Even dipemukiman Islam, Islamic architecture sacralization reinforced by the use of building materials and decoration that is able to echo the word of God. [8] 

As in other aspects of Islam to another, in any architectural principle of Unity (at-tawhid) is very important. In the architecture, integration implies unity architectural elements, interconnectivity functions and purposes keserbaadaan space and sacred things in all forms of architecture, with the intention of abandoning the idea of ​​secular as opposed to the category of the sacred. [9]

Islamic architecture to express a few things: first, to express Tawhid (unity), as the essence of Islamic teachings. Secondly, to express the attitude of devotion to God. Third, the expressed view of Muslim life.

The influence of monotheism in the architecture looks, for example, the iconoclasm or anikonisme, namely the prohibition of religion to draw animate beings. Drawing animate beings meant to compete with God, because the right to create animate creature is God. Ban would be careful so that no one be worshiped but Allah. The ban is manifested in the decoration or wall decoration of the building a clean image animate beings. Consequently, a popular decoration in Islamic architecture is the calligraphy as a means to express God's verses, geomatris forms (geometrical patterns), and arabesque forms. [10] In interior decoration, the influence of spirituality is not just found in buildings sacred, but also the building that is profane. For example, in a Muslim home, with the regularity of home furnishings and floor cleanliness be maintained, then the interior of a traditional Muslim home, as well as the mosque, evoking a sense of holiness through the silence that although no-form, but embody the presence of the Spirit. The incoming air acts as a transmission wheel verses all the time God is echoed in the neighborhood of Islam. When someone enters a mosque or a traditional home, the silence of space is really reminiscent of the Unseen. [11] Thus, spiritual values ​​are parallel to the essence of the Sufi mysticism in which the Lord has always felt present at all times and places.

The beauty of spiritual art and philosophy embodied in works of art, including art, architecture, mostly rooted in the belief of an artist of religious values. People who have religious beliefs are very strong and thick, that belief will be reflected in all dimensions of life. For example, the art of architecture can be seen from the Imam Mosque in Isfahan, a very rich heritage of Islamic art. Imam Mosque is located in Imam Maidam, built in the 16th century. dominated by the dome of the mosque is decorated in blue is one of the greatest works of Islamic art in the world. Ornate calligraphy in the mosque was built by an artist named Ali Reza of Iran. [12]

One of the main concepts of art that is held in Iran is the concept of "metaindividual". Through this concept, an artist did not want to show itself in the artwork, but wanted to unite himself with the Creator through his works. No wonder that many Iranian artists who claim to live in a religious life, in order to bring himself to God. The artists of this kind of believe that the more they explore the nature of creation, the higher the quality of their artistic creation. [13]

The above statement, the possibility could be an important indication in finding an answer when I have trouble finding a famous Sufi as architecture. For the Sufis who are also artists, perhaps to hide himself in a work of art can enhance the flavor ciptaannnya proximity to God. For them, the rewards from those who admire his work is not the goal, but the ultimate goal that they want to achieve is to serve God through the results they produce works of art.


Islamic sacred architecture of the earliest was the Kaaba, the pivot point that penetrates the Earth's sky. Primordial monument built by Prophet Adam and later rebuilt by Prophet Abraham, is an earthly reflection of divine monument that also reflected in the human heart. [14] The Kaaba is a stone building with a shape like a cube measuring 12 m2 and a height of 15 m . He is usually covered with a black kiswah. Many poets compare the black-clad buildings are a bride who has long yearned to grab and kiss. as widely available in Persian poetry. [15]

Talking about the mythology of a stone that forms the basis for the cosmos; green, are well below the ground and the vertical axis of the rotary shaft grounding the entire universe, the center point on the earth is the Kaaba. Black rock-a-meteor in the southeast corner of the Kaaba in Mecca that is the point to which the faithful turn to. This stone, as in the legend says, has always existed. At first he was white, but later changed to black due to touch the hands of those who sin year after year. [16] As for the Sufis, the Kaaba is an orientation in worship prayers. Ka'bah symbolizes the essence of divinity is represented as a black stone and the spiritual essence of man. [17]

However, this black stone, the stone is not only important in the Muslim world. Dome of the rock (Qubah al-Sakhrah or Dome of the Rocks) in Jerusalem is also sacred, because, as they say, all the prophets before Prophet Muhammad settled there, and the Prophet met them at the beginning of his journey to heaven to receive orders prayers. Stone under the dome was blessed by the prophet Muhammad's footprints, and some traditions even claim that the stone was free floating in the air. At the end of the world, Izrafil the angel, will blow the trumpet to announce the resurrection stone. Spiritual connection, in addition to the historical link between second-shrine to the rock (Mecca and Jerusalem) was evident from the Persian poetic notion that the Kaaba appears as a bride for the Dome of the rock. [18]

There is a strong presumption of Muslims that the Kaaba is the center of the world. Likened the Islamic world unfolds like a giant wheel with Mecca as its center, and the lines are drawn from all the mosques in the direction of the Kaaba at Mecca as his fingers. Ka'bah is the axis mundi (world axis) in Islamic cosmology. As the center of the world, the Kaaba is the primordial symbol of the crossroads between spirit and the vertical axis in the horizontal plane of phenomenal existence. During the ceremony of Hajj, the pilgrimage bertawaf round it seven times. The rotating motion of the Hajj, will be a liquid when viewed from above, resembles a huge whirlpool. [19]

Simplicity of form of the Kaaba as the House does not diminish the spiritual values ​​that emerged from the building. Rectangular building, it remains a yearning for all Muslims in the world to see and hold. Each of the hajj, millions of Muslims to come and visit to the Kaaba. When the Ka'bah was present in sight, and without compassion arise can feel the tears running down her cheeks. Cities of Mecca and the Kaaba, the place where God felt really close to the prayers of Muslims so close to God hearing prayer is believed to come true so soon.


Sacred architecture of Islam par excellence is the mosque. The mosque is a remarkable religious buildings are not only used as a center of worship, but also used in social and civic. For a Sufi mosque is a place "remodeling" and "overview" of harmony, order, peace of the universe that has been established by God as the eternal house of worship of Muslims. By performing prayers in a mosque, a Muslim is a return to nature center, not externally but by the relationship that connects the inner mosque with the principles and rhythms of nature. [20] Through his command specifies that the earth is a mosque Muslim, Islam's sacred architecture into the expansion of the copyrighted works of the Almighty power in the built environment by humans. Islamic architecture as well as forming a unity of diversity, harmony everywhere, both in urban and rural environments.

The pattern of mosque architecture in the early days of Islam are still fairly simple but have an optimal and functional utility. The mosque building consists of a given field to form a wall around the page like the Prophet's Mosque when it was first built. Although the shape is simple but there is an atmosphere of intimacy and democratic atmosphere. [21] The centers of the struggle of the Muslims of Medina and Mecca that is, while the mosque which the Prophet was first established Quba mosque architecture that has a simple pattern.

The mosque is a center of Islamic architecture. Understanding of the mosque shows that not one definite shape, which usually reflects the respective regional styles. The basic concept of all mosques in the same show is all set overlooking the Kaaba. In most of the mosque, the mihrab is made as a miniature, decorated on the walls as decorations on the walls of the Kaaba contained. [22]

When someone enters the mosque, which may arise likens the feeling that someone could be close to God and to worship in peace and humility '. Dr. John S. Badean, President of American University in Cairo has revealed that the Mosque of Ibn Tulun with the grandeur and simplicity is a place where he can pray and pray and feel close to God. [23]

Mihrab in a mosque, at the point facing the Ka'bah, and it is the place where the prayer leader (imam) was established to lead the congregation in worship prayers. In the sanctuary, the priest recited the verses of God to the congregation. Verses of the holy God that echoed from the sanctuary, is symbolic of God's presence. This raises the motivation for the worship of the Sufis. Islam is a miracle in transforming the verses of God that memorize the Koran and prayer made by every Muslim. [24]

Other parts of the mosque building is the tower, which in Arabic is called al-manarah, which literally means a place of light. The name of the tower itself in the light of God equated Islam with his word. Regarding the forms have differences in the various mosques in the Islamic world. The entry of the various local agents in each of mosques and minarets become known collectively as the variety and creativity of the art form of Islamic architecture.

Old minaret has no fixed shape and its presence is not a unified architecture by building mosques. Customary to call to prayer in the tower because Java does not require to inform the public of the time prayer drum sounded. Derived form the old minarets on local cultural traditions, including the building of Hindu art and Western art traditions of building. Holy minarets form reminiscent of the shape of the temple such as the Majapahit era, while more Demak minarets resemble the shape of the lighthouse tower. [25] Most of the minarets of mosques in the Muslim world following the patterns of the mosques in Turkey that are influenced by Byzantine architecture. Towers soaring through the sky like jarung also symbolizes the greatness of Islam is not peerless. [26]


The palace is a building used as a residence by the royal person or authority in an area. It consists of various kinds and forms of space contained within a complex. Examples of the palace that have high architectural art is al-Hambra, in Granada, Spain who founded the 14th century was the most perfect examples of Islamic architecture in the West. [27] It is an example of building palaces of the rich and good. The building is responsive to the natural sub-tropical with a hilly neighborhood of stone and clay landed. About Alhambra, Burckhardt in his work The Art of Islam wrote, "Among the examples of Islamic architecture under the control of light, the Alhambra in Granada ranks first. Lion pages are specifically made the rock samples have been converted into a vibration of light; roofed aisles lambriquin, the ornaments on the stalactites, pillars subtlety that seems to withstand the shock, kegemerlapan tiles in green and fountain jets , all of it supports this impression ... By analogy one can say that he was changing a stone into light, which in turn, is also converted into crystals. Stalactites, stalactites of lions in the Alhambra page is not only practical work to support the roof, but also symbolizes the decline of light into the world of material form. All the world is like the light from shining on the darkness of the heavenly world. [28]

Gate / gate

Gate or gate, in Islamic architecture, expressing movement and entry into another place. Feelings that arise when entering a gate, leading to the beginning of a journey. [29] The gate in this case expressing the displacement of a material nature to the spiritual nature. The human soul as it passes through a gate analogous to a move into the spiritual nature, which demands a new journey for the sanctity of human life can return to God with a clean spiritual. Examples of the gate that has a spiritual dimension is the gate of the mosque Sheikh Lutfullah in Isfahan, Iran.

While the bridge is represented as a mediator between heaven and earth, as a liaison between the human and natural forces, and it connects with human nature as God's representatives on earth, is responsible for maintaining the natural, and as a servant of God and do what God wants. In this spiritual journey, the two concepts should be unbridgeable. So, one of a holder of a proprietary natural balance, while at the same time, realize that it all belongs to God. [30]

Buildings of high architectural value in the East is Mauseleum. He was present as an important building after mosques and palaces. Mauseleum often built to demonstrate to the community, or idiosyncrasies of political forces in the field for someone who has died. [31] It has a variety of forms, sometimes resembling a mosque, and sometimes resembles a castle. Mauseleum also present as the building is erected to commemorate the death of someone who is influential in a society.


The palace is the town center. The architecture and iconography is very complex. He symbolized a Sufi explanation-explanation of the cycle of life, the mystical path relationship between God and man, and between normative piety and mystical doctrines. The concept of inclusion of elements of symbolism and iconography of Hinduism and Buddhism to Islam in Java, the same as Islam in the Middle East absorbing elements of Hellenistic and Persian traditions. It also proves that there is no religious and cultural traditions that exist in isolation. [32]

Iconography, symbolism and architecture describes the structure of the cosmos Muslim palace and the relationship between Sufism and Shari'ah. In the palace complex are the square, trees, buildings, open pavilions, walls, and gates each having one or more distinct religious meaning. [33] The palace is believed to be a sacred area that defines the state and society. In this case, it is analogous to the Kaaba in Mecca, which became the center of the Muslim world as a whole. Palace was the center of the mystical and spiritual bodies of the empire which serves as a platform for the realization of the divine essence of which is represented by the Sultan. [34]

Old mosques in Indonesia builds upon a long tradition of structural art, good art tradition of building natural wood or brick. The mosque occupies an area of ​​the environment in general, the king or supreme local authorities, precisely on the west side of the square.

In the early development of Islam, relations with the central government anatara the mosque together and very close together. Purposely built adjacent to the mosque and the palace square. The goal, is to avoid the practice of arbitrary government. Thus, the mosque as an institution like a state agency that constantly reminds the authorities the right policy direction and get the blessings God. Such structures, for example, can be seen in Medina, Damascus, Basra and Kufa. Similarly, the Great Mosque was built adjacent to the palace of Yogyakarta Sultanate. And the county town, the mosque has always been on the west side of the square and is a building complex in the district. [35] It is interesting that in the complex of the kingdom, the square in front of the banyan tree planted two (waringin) is said to be one the creation of Sunan Kalijaga. [36] To date, I have not been able to find literature to indicate the intention of two banyan tree planted in front of the entrance to the palace square.

In building the trustees violated and nine mosques are not applying the shape and pattern of existing mosques in Islamic countries. No form of mosque which was built with a vaulted and high-rise towers. Who built it always exploit the potential of local buildings Hindu religious worship and public buildings are widely berdenah (joglo). The roof of the building can be said to violate the sacred buildings take the form of a poster of the Hindu religion and roofed tajug. The mosque building is also taking shape Wantilan building, where the sacrifice (the sacrament) with chicken and complain as well as public buildings and meetings. An example is the Great Mosque in the form joglo Yogya. [37]

Demak Mosque was founded at the beginning of the 15th century by Raden Fatah (Fatah Sultan) as the first sultan of the Islamic empire Demak. In the construction of mosques Demak, the guardian (Wali Songo) contributed to the development down and serve as a center of Islamic preaching in Demak. The main building of this mosque has four main pillars (pillar), each pole is said to be made by the trustees. These four main pillars supporting the roof is shaped overlapping stacking three, and at its peak there were mustaka. Pole or a pillar of its principal pillars other stands on a foundation. The relationship between the pillar of the framework of the roof covering system of three laying trident emblem, the physical nature, human feelings and obligations. [38] One of these poles, there are made of shavings or splinters of wood, purportedly as a symbol of brotherly peace and the unity of Muslims. Masts towering he implies that the direction towards one goal, namely God Almighty. While the rope that binds chips, described as a leader who always serve the people without distinction of one another. [39]

In Indonesia, the arrangement of shapes or patterns in a complex of palaces and castles following the end of the Indonesia-Hindu tradition, following the pattern of development of the temple and the temple in Bali. Some of the palace or the castle-like in Siak Inderapura, Maimun palace at Medan Deli which is a palace, then Langkat palaces and other palaces scattered across the archipelago-all show different patterns. However, at the same time, there are also similarities that are magical, religious or cosmological.


Islamic architecture is part of Islamic culture that deserves the proud. Proud in the sense that the spread of Islamic architecture in other parts of the world, taking an important role in the development of high-quality art pieces and is recognized as a glorious civilization. Islamic architecture not only appreciating the art of simply "art for art", but has the inner meanings symbolized in the forms of the full meaning and imagination.

The influence of Sufism eventually enter the field of architecture as art where Sufism has influenced art and literature of music. Every shape and patterns are developed referring to the spiritual values ​​that are teosentrik. Inner meanings in Islamic architecture, has various meanings, and meanings are all leaning to divine values ​​and as a center of imagination and inspiration of Islamic architectures.
References and Footnote

Afzalur Rahman, Al-qur'an Resource Sciences, trans. M. Arifin, cet. 2 New York: Rineka Copyright, 1992

Warson Munawwir Ahmad, al-Munawwir Dictionary, cet. 14 New York: Progressive Press, 1997

Annemarie Schimmel, Divine Secrets of the Holy Face, trans. Rahmani Astuti York: Mizan, 1996

Azra Kidwai, Islam, New Delhi: Lustree Press, 1998

Carl W. Ernst, Teachings and Amaliah Mysticism, trans. Arif Anwar York: Sufi Books, 2003

David James, Islamic Art: An Introduction, London: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1974

Editorial Board, Thematic Ensikopedi the Islamic World, New York: New Ichtiar van Hoeve, 2002

Hasan Muarif Ambary, Finding Civilization: The Archaeological and Historical Traces of Islam Indonesia, Jakarta: Logos Discourse Studies, 1998

Pearsall & Bill Trumble Gambling (ed), The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, second edition, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996

Laleh Bakhtiar, Sufi Expressions of the Mystic Quest, (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997

Mark R. Woodward, Islam Java: Normative Piety versus Mysticism, trans. Hairus Salim, London: LKIS, 1999

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Traditional Islam in the midst of the Modern World, trans. Luqman Hakim New York: Library, 1994

Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Art and Spirituality, trans. Sutejo, cet. 2 New York: Mizan, 1993

Tugiyono KS, et al, Heritage Sites and Buildings-style Islam in Indonesia, Jakarta: 2001 Pearl Sources Widaya

Zein. M. Wiryoprawiro, Development of Mosque Architecture in East Java, Surabaya: Development Studies, 1986

[1] Carl W. Ernst, Teachings and Amaliah Mysticism, too. Arif Anwar (New York: Sufi Books, 2003), p. XXIX
[2] Lack of information or data that showed a mystic who is also an expert in the field of Islamic architecture. To mention almost nothing, just Sunan Kalijaga might be called a mystic who is also an expert in the field of architecture. He is mentioned in the design and construction of the Great Mosque Great Mosque of Demak Cirebon. "Pillar of chips" (split wood) which is one of the main pillars of the mosque is a creation of Sunan Kalijaga. Lihat,

[3] Hasan Muarif Ambary, Menemukan Peradaban: Jejak Arkeologis dan Historis Islam Indonesia, (Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu, 1998) hlm. 181-189
[4] Judi Pearsall & Bill Trumble (ed), The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, second edition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), hlm. 69
[5] Ahmad Warson Munawwir, Kamus al-Munawwir, cet. 14 (Surabaya: Pustaka Progressif, 1997) hlm. 971-972
[6] Tim Editor, Ensiklopedi Tematis Dunia Islam, (Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 2002) jilid IV, hlm. 305
[7] Azra Kidwai, Islam, (New Delhi: Lustree Press, 1998), hlm. 74
[8] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Spiritualitas Dan Seni Islam, terj. Sutejo, cet. 2 (Bandung: Mizan, 1993), hlm. 58
[9] Nasr, Islam Tradisi, hlm. 245
[10] Ensiklopedi Tematis, h. 306
[11] Nasr, Spiritualitas.., hlm. 61
[13] Ibid.
[14] Ibid., hlm. 54
[15] Schimmel, Rahasia Wajah Suci Ilahi, terj. Rahmani Astuti (Bandung: Mizan, 1996) hlm. 106
[16] Ibid., hlm. 33-34
[17] Laleh Bakhtiar, Sufi Expressions of the mystic Quest, (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997), hlm. 47
[18] Schimmel, Rahasia., hlm. 34
[19] Ensiklopedi tematis, hlm. 312
[20] Nasr, Spiritualitas., hlm. 50-51
[21] Zein. M. Wiryoprawiro, Perkembangan Arsitektur Masjid Di Jawa Timur (Surabaya: Bina Ilmu, 1986) h. 15
[22] Azra Kidwai, Islam.,; Bakhtiar, Sufi Expressions., hlm. 47
[23] Afzalur Rahman, Al-qur'an Sumber Ilmu Pengetahuan, terj. M. Arifin, cet. 2 (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 1992), hlm. 255
[24] Bakhtiar, Sufi Expressions., hlm. 47
[25] Ambary, Menemukan., hlm. 196-197
[26] Wiryoprawiro, Perkembangan., hlm. 59
[27] David James, Islamic Art: An Introduction, (London: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, 1974) hlm. 17
[28] Nasr, Spiritualitas., hlm. 64-65
[29] Laleh Bakhtiar, Sufi Expressions., hlm. 43
[30] ibid
[31] James, Islamic Art., hlm. 92
[32] Mark R. Woodward, Islam Jawa: Kesalehan Normatif versus Kebatinan, terj. Hairus Salim, (Yogyakarta: LkiS, 1999) h. 25
[33] Ibid, h. 294
[34] Ibid, h. 295
[35] Tugiyono KS, dkk, Peninggalan Situs dan Bangunan Bercorak Islam di Indonesia, (Jakarta: Mutiara Sumber Widaya, 2001), hlm. 13; lihat juga, Ambary, Menemukan., hlm. 196
[37] Wiryoprawiro, Perkembangan., hlm. 125
[38] Ambary, Menemukan., hlm. 196
[39] Tugiyono KS, Peninggalan., hlm. 58
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