Saturday, May 12, 2012

Tafsir Al-Isyari

The interpretation of al-isyari according to what the term is defined (something that can be defined / understood, is taken) of a word only guess without having to put in context (something that is determined only from the form of sentences in context).

A. Preliminary

Prophet. is a person who is authorized by God Almighty. . To interpret, explain and describe the content of the Qur'an. From these facts it is understood that the needs of the community will explain the Koran fulfilled during the lifetime of the Prophet., this is because all the problems arising in the Qur'an they immediately ask the Prophet.

Period after the death of the Prophet. meruapakan can be said in the transition of leadership someone who had direct guidance from God to a human being. At this time then emerged and developed several methods of interpretation of the Koran. These methods were developed, of course, with a view to answering persoala-increasing problems in the Muslim ummah.

In the development of interpretation, we know there are some shades of interpretation, starting from al-ma'tsur bi, bi al-ra'yi, maudhu'I, ijmali, tahlili, isyari and so on. This paper will discuss one method of interpretation is , the interpretation isyari. discussion will include the following topics: definitions and interpretations isyari-range stuff, permissibility isyari interpretation, the terms of the interpretation isyari, shufi isyari interpretation, interpretation of scientific isyari kauniah paragraph, the opinion of the scholars about the permissibility and interpretation isyari the terms of the interpretation of scientific isyari

B. Interpretation of the definition Isyari And Various kinds

Isyarah etymologically means the appointment, beckoned. [1] While al-isyari interpretation is menakwilkan (interpret) the Quranic verse al-Karim zahirnya not like, but based on a vague gesture that can be known by the learned and pious, which is consistent with pentakwilan zahir meaning of Quranic verses from some of the syarhis (which masyru '). [2]

The isyarah according to what the term is defined (something that can be defined / understood, is taken) of a word only guess without having to put in context (something that is defined only in the form of sentences with no context). [3]

According to al-Jahizh that 'gesture and pronunciation are two things coupled together, a lot of helpful pronunciation cues (in memahminya), and interpretation (translation) good pronunciation when heeding isyratnya, many cues that replaces the pronunciation, and do not need to be written. [4]

Isyari commentary is divided into two branches, namely [5]

The first is the ali-al-shari'ah is silent, which can be known by the righteous, pious and knowledgeable person when mebaca al-qur'an, then they are when reading a verse will find some meaning.

The second is the al-isyari al-jali (clear signal), contained in paragraph kauniyah in al-Quran, which clearly suggests a variety of new knowledge. On things like this will appear kemu'jizatan Koran today, the era of science.

C. Ability interpretation isyari
Postulate the permissibility of this interpretation can be drawn from the following verse:
ا فلا يتدبرون القرأن أم على فلويهم أقفالها
"Do they not consider the Qur'an or are their hearts locked up "(Surah Muhammad: 24)

God indicated that the unbelievers do not understand the Qur'an, Allah SWT. told them umtuk contemplate the verses (signs of) the Qur'an Al-karim, so they know the meaning and purpose. In the above verse Allah SWT. not intend to declare that unbelievers do not understand the lalaf paragraph (a zahir) or Allah SWT. do not get them to understand zahirnya verse, because the Arab polytheists, no doubt, if only to understand the verses of the Koran in zahir. But that Allah SWT. want to point out the paragraph above is, that they do not understand the purpose of God Almighty. of which exists in the Qur'an khitab (They do not understand the purpose of the Qur'an), then Allah SWT. Told them to meditate on the verse Qur'an until they know the intent and purpose of the Qur'an them. It's called the gesture of an unknown and not thought of the unbelievers, because keinkaran and disbelief that was in their hearts.
Surely a man who just wants to understand the Qur'an bersengaja by Zahir course, it would be difficult for him to know rabbaniyah cues (cues from God, the divine sign) contained in the Qur'an al-karim.
Examples of this interpretation are:
إذا جاء نصر الله والفتح

When the verse was interpreted by ijmali method is that of Allah. tells them to praise Him, ask Him forgiveness when Allah. help and give victory ', while Ibn Abbas argued that it shows that Allah SWT. The apostle tells about the end was near, that God said "if it has been coming for help and victory (verse)" then it's a sign ajalmu been close (cue) "Then glorify your Lord and ask forgiveness for him (verse)". Just Umar then said: "I do not know about it except what you're saying". [6]

Abdullah Bin Abbas also said: "The Qur'an have a sense of sadness and art (could mean a branch), back and stomach (which is obvious and subtle), all the magic will not be reached, the limit will not be terjalani, then any person who entered it with a friendly (got back) then he would survive, but who enter it with coarse (No handle) then he will get hurt. Koran also have news, permisalan, halal and haram, and mansukh nasikh, muhkam and mutsyabih, Zahir and the inner, zahirnya is reading (which is like a written zahir) and the inner is ta'wil, because it pergauliah scholars (to know it ), and stay away from stupid people. [7]

D. Terms Tafsir Isyari

Many scholars argue that the interpretation isyari it should not, for fear of making a lie about Allah. in interpreting revelation, without knowledge or guidance and proof. While scholars argue that this interpretation may be, set some conditions, namely: [8]

Isyari's interpretation should not conflict with the meaning of Zahir of the Qur'an al-karim nazhm.
Should not be considered that the interpretation isyari it is the only one without losing sight of the meaning of the verse zahirnya, or ignore the results of other methods of interpretation.
Not conflict with shariah, or with reasonable
Must have evidence or argument to support this syar'i.
That the conditions that must be followed when a person wants to use isyari interpretation. If the conditions are met then selurah acceptable interpretation, but if there is not met then the interpretation is not acceptable.

It should be underlined that it is not mandatory for a person to wear isyari interpretation (when interpreting) is different with the interpretation based aqli qawaid a clear, strong and detailed rules. While the interpretation of the Koran isyari secret meaning only emerging, it occurred in the heart of a believer who is pious, piety and learning, for someone who knows there is no obligation, if he would just keep it between himself and his god, or teach it to others without obliging others to learn.

Likewise, the laws of Sharia, not be concluded by way of interpretation isyari, in the absence of a clear argument, of the benefits to be derived from isyari interpretation is in the field of morals, strengthen the spirit, faith and belief. There are things you should be warned here, that interpretation isyari, subject to conditions set by the experts, not the same or opposite to the method of philosophy in terms of theory sufhi isyarah commentary (tafsir isyari isyari interpretation here is different from as-sufhi), which came out of the way interpretation of the shar ' i.

E. Sufi Tafsir Isyari

The mystics long ago have been trying to find the back of the Koran texts for their teaching, and trying to take the verses of the Qur'an as a milestone which will strengthen and move their way. The mystics see that there are ideas in, detailed dalalah lafziah hidden behind a paragraph. They argue that the decrease in the intrinsic meaning of the Koran is not going to be endless meaning only in the form zahirnya, but there is meaning zahir / clear and inner / vague. And the most important thing is to let it juxtaposed the two meanings.

Sufis isyarah argue that science is the science of the secrets of the Qur'an by mengamalkannya, [9] they call it, the school ahlu correctly concluded sufwah in what can be understood from the Qur'an.
Allah SWT. said:

ا فلا يتدبرون القرأن أم على فلويهم أقفالها


And the prophet Muhammad SAW said:


من عمل بما علم ورثه الله نعالى علم ما لم يعلم


'' Those who practice what he knows, Allah SWT. will give knowledge about what has not he know''
The science that does not exist on the expert knowledge (other scientists).

While iqpalul Qulub (locked liver) is the rust that is on the liver, because of sin, to follow the passions, loves the world, kelalain long, very greed, love well, love praise and flattery. Etc. are included from the error and negligence, abuse and betrayal. If Allah SWT. had removed it from the heart, which is good to repent, and regret for the deeds which he did do wrong, then Allah SWT. will open the hearts of those who terkuci., and provide supplies, avail of the things that are unseen to the person. So with such a given it will be menta'birkannya (mengkalimatkan) in translating the Qur'an, which is a tongue that could talk about keghoriban (oddity) keghoriban wisdom and knowledge.

Allah SWT. said:

أفلا يتدبرون القرأن ولو كان من عند غير الله لوجدوا فيه اختلافا كثيرا (النساء

'' So if they do not pay attention to the Qur'an. If the Qur'an is presumably not from Allah SWT. , Is certainly getting a lot of contradictions in it''.

It showed that by reflecting on the Qur'an al-karim they conclude something it (take the starch), as if the Koran not from Allah SWT. they will get a lot of contradictions in it. The Sufis also believe that in the Qur'an al-karim letter there is much to be understood, but it was saved for people who know it only depends sebara large and he was given the understanding by Allah. [10] For this proposition they put forward:

و إن من شيئ إ 4; ا عندنا خزائنه و ما ننزله إلا بقدر معلوم (الحجو 21)
'' And there is no any sesutau but the side we were the treasures, and we do not lose it with a certain size''

The mystics argued that the word من شيئ means something of the science of religion, science ahwal (state) of Allah SWT. and his servants, and so forth. A person will only be up to it when contemplating the Qur'an, thinking about it and realize it, presenting him while reading it. Abu Said Al-Khurroz argue that if a servant had gathered with his god, then his attention will not be directed to other than Allah. at all, then at that time he will get the essence of understanding when reading the Koran, which does not exist in other human '. He also said that whenever there is a single letter contained in the Qur'an al-karim, then there is another understanding of understanding other people, according to one's closeness to Allah., the presence of the liver time to read it, love Him, the sanctity of dhikr, and proximity, because the difference in this case so there is levels in understanding the Qur'an. [11]

What is understood from the Qur'an was limited to what God opened the hearts of the guardian-the guardian. Kalamullah was not a creature, the creature of understanding will never come to kalamullah limit, as human beings, and also his understanding that there are creatures first. The Sufi believes that the key to understanding the depth and detail to understand the Koran is the practice of the Qur'an itself. [12] So Abu Said Al-Khurraz said: 'initial understanding of the Qur'an al-karim is practice it, because the knowledge contained therein, understanding, and a conclusion, it is also the beginning of the Koran is pemahan to listen and pay attention to the revelations of Allah.

إن قى ذالك لذكرى لمن كان له قلب أو ألقى السمع و هو شهيد
'' Verily in this is true-there benra warning to people who have liver or the use of his hearing, while he watched.''

That was the Sufis who stepped in their path for them. They told us that they dwelt think one of the many verses in the Koran to the nights, they reflect, and take its conclusions, and see the magic that appeals to them, to Hampi, almost insane. [13]

Sometimes this is true Sufis in the Qur'an al-karim understanding with isyarah they mean, people can orangpun memerima their words, as words of Abu Bakr al-Kittani when he was asked about the verse

إلا من أتى الله بقلب سليم (الشعراء 89)

'' Unless the people are facing Allah. with a pure heart''

He said, that can be understood by qalbun salim, there are three sides / kinds: one is the one who met Allah. and in his heart there is no ally of Allah. The second was a meeting with Allah. and dihatinya no worries to God and do not want except Allah. The third is the one who met with Allah SWT. and nothing with him but remember Him and fear Him.

Imam Ghazali, which does not prohibit the interpretation of the Sufi interpretation of this, if this interpretation does not facilitate / expand the boundaries bolehnya isyarah rely on formula and they understand it, interpret the verse; فاخلع نعليك '' So lepaskankanlah sandals'' But also some of them sometimes have diverged in menakwilakan al-qur'an, until other people were poisoned. Some examples of those mistakes in the interpretation of the verse is as follows: [14].

الم يجدك يتيما فأوى (الضحى 6) 6

(He not find you an orphan, and He will protect you), they argue that the word orphan means matchless pearl.

Some go even thinks it's odd, really strange that exceeds the limit. As they think about are indeed the Qur'an al-karim that begins with the letter Ba in paragraph يسم الله الرحمن الرحيم (الفاتحة 1) and berkhir with the letter sin, as in paragraph من الجنة و الناس (الناس 6) , The two letters that form words بس which means simply, this means that the Koran is enough, people will not need to other than the Qur'an al-karim.

There are many characters who defended and attacked shufi isyari this form of interpretation. But it all boils down to an interpretation that does not deviate from zahirnya verse, it's basically not a problem. [15] Differences in interpretation isyari isyari shufi as-is that the emphasis on the meanings that emerge isyari which then does not conflict with the meaning of paragraph Zahir, while the as-shufi isyari principle that the primary and essential meaning in a verse is isyarinya meaning. [16]

F. For verse commentary Isyari Ilmi kauniyah and skill.

Indeed the Koran verses that contain cues kauniyah is not intended to indicate the laying of the methods of scientific knowledge, although the clause was included on the basis and principle of this method is global, but the point is want to show that the Qur'an brought by Prophet Muhammad SAW. is the book of Allah. which has created the universe and provide the rules, a sense of the scholars, the reviewer confused (busy) to understand it. And we, of course, should not be to not mengindahakan kauniyah verses, which talk about truth, honesty since fourteen centuries ago , which we are familiar, who knocks (attract scientists to study it) the reviewer's mind, tear down, those who reject kufr and inkar. we should not leave it without menjelasakn and explain it with corroborating evidence of truth and honesty, although the evidence is derived from the science of people other than Muslims, so that the evidence and our arguments are stronger and more complete. [17]

Here are some verses kauniyah

A. Koran cues about Kaun (natural) with respect to the earth;
one of which is a paragraph; و ترى الجبال تحسبها جامدة و هى تمر مر السحاب (النمل 88)
'' And you see those mountains, you would have thought he was still in place when he was running like the way the clouds.
This shows that the rotation of the Earth
2. Cues about the nature of the Koran with respect to the sky and space
و السماء ذات الحبك (الذاريات 7)
Heaven'' for the sake of having a walk (the path of stars and planets)''
signal will ramp / orbit the planet and its circulation in the sky.

3. cues about the nature of the Koran with respect to clouds and wind.

أ لم تر ان الله يجزى سحابا ثم يؤلف بينه ثم يجعله ركاما فترى الودق يخرج من خلال و يتزل من السمكء من جبال فيها من برد فيصيب به من يشاء و يصرفه عمن يشاء يكاد سنا برقه يذهب بالأبصار (النور 43)

'' Do you not see that Allah SWT. makes the clouds, then joins them together (the parts), then make bertindah-overlap, then visible by you rain down from the cracks. Allah SWT. grains also lowers one of the sky, (ie) from (like clouds) then ditimpakannya mountain (the grains) ice it to whoever he wants and he sioapa She turned from kehendai. Kilta sparkle cloud almost eliminate vision''

This paragraph describes the occurrence of rain and lightning as a result of friction clouds. With verse like this, and like him, become clearer to us without a doubt; that kauniyah Koran verse of Al-karim has hinted will and basic principles of natural sciences, which The new man to the science of it recently.'s characters allow this interpretation, arguing Qur'an al-karim that includes the religious sciences I'tiqadiyah (beliefs) and scientific (empirical)., all the sciences of the world with a wide range of variety, and number of branches. People who are most keen to strengthen and spread this interpretation and practice, in the Islamic world is al-Ghazali and Imam as-Suyuti.

Indeed, those who study the Qur'an will see that the Koran contains verses that are vague in the past, although the friends to know / understand the verse as zahir, now tebuka secret, and open the truth by the light of modern science. An example is the verse that hints about the process of human creation;

لقد خلقنل الإنسان من سلالة من طين # ثم جعلناه فى قرار مكين # ثم خلقنا النطفة علقة فخلقنا العلقة مضغة 601; خلقنا المضغة عظاما فكسونا العظام لحما ثم أنشأنا خلقا أخر فتبارك الله أحسن الخالقين (المؤمنون 12-14)

And indeed We created man from a quintessence (derived) from the ground # then we placed him as semen (stored) in a solid temapt (rahimj) # then we make semen segumpul blood and a blood clot that we make a lump of flesh, then a piece of meat that we make the bones and the bones that we wrap the meat, then we at We made ​​creatures (form) else. So it be to almighty Allah. Best of creators.

This verse, is one of the many miracles of miracles al-qur'an, the ordering of words, the harmony of verse continuity, who do not can not be seen except the doctors, who study the science of the fetus, and associated with them. This verse teaches the fetus with baligh (obscure but wonderful), accurate determination of the law. And now, surely it has been established and strengthened with clear proofs. This verse is the best explanation of the creation of man, while medical science that has been tried, and gave all his ability to figure out where we came from, it still can not unless they are a step behind the Qur'an.

That's the level of the creation of man who was told by Allah. in the Qur'an al-karim wisdom, that He created man from dust, then He is the fox into the semen in a solid, then a blood clot, then an advanced meat, then a bone, then wrapped with meat. This verse became more obvious and visible under the light of the truth of modern science, which this paragraph is vague and unknown in the past.

Terms of Tafsir Isyari Ilmy

Someone who wants to practice this method of interpretation should be aware of these terms and the rule, until not to be involved and making Ngada in interpreting the Qur'an al-karim without science. An outline of the terms laid down by our scholars is as follows: [18]
  • Follow the terms of the interpretation that we mentioned above.
  • Let the interpretation is consistent with Isyari ilmiy nazhm meaning of the Qur'an.
  • Let no boundaries out into the field of interpretation of scientific theories.
  • Let's find out mufassir scientific theories, which he interprets the Quran about the natural cues.
  • Let him not carry, and beat the Qur'an equates to scientific theories, if it turns out that the theory of harmony with the Qur'anic verse was confirmed by means of the theory, but if the contrary shall not be taken / and defeated the verse to a scientific theory.
  • Let him make the content of paragraph kauniyah such as basic explanations and interpretations.
  • Must hold on to the meaning of the Arabic etymology which is in verse, when explaining the meaning of paragraph kauniyah the scientific signaling. Because the Koran in Arabic.
  • Content does not violate the Shari'a in his comments.
  • Let the interpretation is in accordance with the diinginksn by paragraph, with no shortage of explanations of the meaning of the verse, and no more with things that are not relevant to the paragraph and do not correspond in position.
  • Let keep the unity between the verse with other verses, harmony, and keunitannya, let him tie one paragraph to another (verses later and earlier), that paragraph was a complete unity.
H. Cover

Tafsir al-isyari is menakwilkan (interpret) the Quranic verse al-Karim zahirnya not like, but based on a vague gesture that can be known by the learned and pious, which is consistent with pentakwilan zahir meaning of Quranic verses from some of the syarhis (which masyru ').


Isyari commentary is divided into two branches, namely; isyari al-tafsir al-silent, and al-tafsir al-jali isyari. No doubt that can be proved that the interpretation of this isyari be used in interpreting the Koran. But of course, is inseparable from the Siwak Siwak and the terms of use. Differences in interpretation isyari isyari shufi as-is that the emphasis on the meanings that emerge isyari which then does not conflict with the meaning of paragraph Zahir, while the as-shufi isyari principle that primary and essential meaning in a verse is the meaning isyarinya. While the interpretation of paragraph kauniyah isyari isyari interpretation that is used to interpret the verses kauniyah. Terms staple in the interpretation of this pattern is that one should not carry or defeat the Qur'an with scientific theories when it turns out the results of different interpretations.


Bibliography
  • Al-Qa ¯ ¯ ± n, Mann ± Khal ³ l, Mab ± ¥ I £ f ³ 'Ulm al-Qur' ± n. Riyadh: Man ¡± t ur al-| ad ³ £, 1973.
  • As-Shabuni, Muhammad Ali, Introduction to study the Koran, trans. London: al-Ma'arif, 1987.
  • Faudah, Mahmud Basuni, Tafseer-Tafseer of the Qur'an. New York: Library, 1987.
  • Maruzi, Muslich, Revelation Quran Tafsir History and Development Studies. Jakarta: Library Amani, 1987.
  • Rahman, Khalid Sheikh Abdur Tafsir wa Usul Qawa'iduhu. Damascus, Dar an-Nafais, 1994.
  • Suma, Muhammad Amin, study the Quran Sciences. London: Eden Press, 2001.
  • Taufiq, and Fadil Shakir Na'im Faraj, Ulumu al-Qur'an. Baghdad: Dar al-Hurriyah, 1987.
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