Friday, May 11, 2012

Sunan Abi Daud and Sunan at-Tirmidhi

The essence of Islam is the religion that comes from God, delivered by the angel Gabriel to the prophet Muhammad. Besides, too, comes from all the words, deeds and statutes prophet Muhammad. In carrying out its mission, called the hadith. The scholars of the various generations of the companions, tabi'in, tabi'in tabi'in and so on trying to understand and implement the teachings derived from the Qur'an and the Hadith. By using ra'yu. Through a variety of ways that have been formulated in accordance with their abilities and perceptions of each.

Therefore, in this case I will present a discussion of Sunan Abi Daud and Sunan at-Tirmidhi, on the biography, the writing and content of systematic assessment and komenar the scholars and experts as well as books syarahnya.

Sunan Abi Daud

A. Biography of Sunan Abi Daud

The full name is Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ishaq al-Asy'as bin bin bin Bisri Shaddad bin 'Amr ibn Imran al-' as-Sijistani Azdi. [1] He was born in the year 202 H, learning science is a hobby since childhood, before the deep Hadith Abu Daud has studied the Koran in Arabic as well as other materials. He is seen as a figure of scholars who have high levels of memorization and understanding of the tradition which is quite high on the side of his personality that wara ', obedient worship and a deep understanding of his religion. [2]

In menempah himself to be a great scholar, he was poor across the country every aspect such as: Khorasan, Ray, Kufa, Baghdad, Tarsus, Damascus, Egypt, Basra. In the tradition of digging usahnya various syeikhnnya, Abu Daud repeatedly entered the city of Baghdad, last in the year 272 H. Certainly in a big city and capital of the Islamic government, he drew mengalaman, not in vain he wandered, many teachers found to be drawn tekemuka science, such as Abu Amr ad-Dharir, Abu al-Walid at-Thilasi, Sulaiman bin Harb and Ahmad bin Hanbal.

Keulamaannya reputation soared when he lived in Basrah. Basrah was then hit by famine caused by the attack in 257 Zaid H, Abu Ahmad, the governor of Basrah is also the brother of the caliph al-Muwafiq requested that Abu Daud was willing to stay there to be a teacher, especially the science of hadith. Then he was willing to live there in Shawwal in 275 AH (in addition to experts in the field of hadith, he is also an expert in the field of fiqh, it can be seen in the book of patterned his Sunan that fiqh). He also died there on 16 Shawwal 275 years. [3]

Abu Daud left many works, especially in the field of Hadith and Shariah some science in general. The works that reach twelve works.

Based on the biographical data above, it may be said that Abu Daud was a pivotal figure among the scholars of hadith. As evidence, that the traditions he riwayatkan and gathered in the book of Sunan Abi Daud called, is recognized as a classic that became a handle on the hadith scholars thereafter. Especially for those who are interested in making the study of legal traditions. [4]

B. Content Writing and systematic Sunan.

Imam Abu Daud Book of Sunan with a systematic set of fiqh, the goal is to make the order book is not only in finding references sebgai traditions but at the same time can also be used to explore the laws of the content of the existing traditions. Subsequently used as the arguments of the problems mentioned in each chapter. [5]

This book contains 4800 hadith, hadith quintessence of the 500,000 it controls well, contained in his book. The number of repeated contents are 5274 pieces of hadith. [6]

We are very easy for readers in search of legal traditions, so a thumbs-up from the scholars of future generations, which is fun again, he admitted that not all traditions are written is valid. Consequently, he gave a weak note a number of traditions that were not included matruk origin, said that he did not enter a tradition reported of people who matruk traditions. He seems to have thought that the tradition is less valid still more weighty kind of opinion among the scholars. From this information we can say that this sunan deserve to be ranked in the Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

So Abu Daud describes the methods he used in his book Sunan. He stated: "I called hadith sahih and similar and that telalu da'eef I will explain." Further, he explained that in his Sunan books there is no one who comes from perwi hadispun matruk, if there is evil traditions then explained that the tradition is evil.

From this fact indicates that Abu Daud very thorough in mennyaring tradition. Accuracy is also growing that the filter tradition, has always rejected the traditions of the experts agreed that matruk nilainy the hadith narrators da'eef because defendants lied. But if not agreed on the assessment of Abu Daud turned to kebersambungan sanad and subsequent tradition is taken the traditions that are not interrupted sanadnya. [7]

Thus David Abdu personal records in the study of hadith provide clues to the accuracy, selective efforts of various sanad to determine the value of tradition is a caution, because it's tradition that diriwayatkannya sanad from the point of it is meant to support each other on the theme of the same tradition.

C. Ratings and Comments scholars and experts.

It appears that the book of Sunan Abu Daud up, he settled in the fez in the period of 20 years. He selects as many as 500 000 4850 hadith from the hadith. Abu Daud quite satisfied with one or two hadith in every chapter. He wrote a letter to the scholars of Mecca who explained the following: "I did not write and record more than one or two traditions in each chapter, although still found a number of other hadiths which are still associated with the same problem. If all these traditions is taken here and there, then the numbers will membanyak and I think it will be difficult. One or two traditions will be easier ". [8]

In fact he said that the four traditions have been enough for someone to life in the day.

The Book of Sunan Abi Daud widely circulated on the lifetime of the author. Ali bin Hasan commented that he has been studying us as much as six times that of Abu Daud. This book is one of the best and most comprehensive book in the field of legal traditions.

Keep in mind that not all traditions yangdibukukan Abi Daud in it is valid, Abu Daud himself has given a note on a weak hadith dab some traditions are still many weak traditions which are not given a note by him.

D. Scriptures Sharh Sunan Abi Daud.

Abi Sharh Sunan Dawud from, among others:

A. Abu Sulaiman Hamad bin Mohammed bin Ibrahim al-Khattibi (w H 386), who wrote Sharh as-Sunan Ma'alim.

2. Neural Abadi al-Haq (d. 1329) who wrote his book 'Aun al-Ma'bud.

3. Khalil Ahmad as-Sarnigari (d. 1367) who wrote al-Majhud Badzl Halli Fi Abi Dawud.

4. Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Hadi al-Sanadi (w.1139). [9]

Thus Sunan Abi Dawud discussion and then we will discuss the Sunan at-Tirmidhi with a discussion of the same scheme includes a biography, systematic writing and content of his Sunan, ratings and comments as well as scholars and experts ktab syarahnya books.

SUNAN AT-Tirmidhi

A. Biography.

The full name is the imam at-Tirmzi Abu Muhammad bin Isa bin Musa bin Saurah Dhahhak ad-al-al-Bughi Zulami at-Tirmizi. He was born in Turmuz in the year 209 H, and also in this city he died at the age of 70 years. [10] As a figure scholar, he received a positive rating. Ya'la Abu al-Khalili said that he is a cleric siqat and approval.

From existing sources can be noted that the Imam Tirmizi as a teenager have been studied with teachers in the village. As in Khurasan he apprenticed to Ibn Ishaq Rawaih, in Nashafur beguru he told Muhammad ibn Amr al-Sawaq, then he went to Iraq to study with scholars and hafiz. According to al-Khatib al-Bagdadi that at-Tirmizi studied for 35 years. [11]

If you look at the life of the leading scholars of hadith narrators, such as al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, it can be said that the scholars of hadith are the people my age, so it is most likely they studied and obtained input from other sources. Likewise, the history of their tradition. Every now and then received a history from the same source and at another time and opportunity to obtain a history of tradition from the source of the hadith.

B. Writing and implies systematic

Imam at-Tirmidhi who lived during the third century, as scholars have followed actively in the development of hadith and fiqh. He has done his role in terms of positioning, perception, behavior and eskpektasi as a scholar who has been noted by researchers as something that brings a new air in the development of tradition.

With these kedelaman he has written a book of hadith known as Jami 'at-Tirmizi or collectively, the Sunan at-Tirmizi.

We sunan is becoming very important for the study of hadith in this book because he really noticed ta'lil explicitly mentions the hadith by hadith sahih. This book was ranked fourth among the six books.

By author Zunnun az-Kashef, Hajji Khalfah (d. 1657) the position of the book Sunan was ranked the third in the hierarchy of the six books of hadith. Even Abu Isma'il al-Ansari, the scholars of hadith, considers that the book at-Tirmizi is more useful than the books of Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim in terms of its use. Book by al-Bukhari and Muslim can only be understood by an expert, but Sunan at-Tirmizi can be understood by anyone.

At-Tirmizi has basic guidelines in screening materials for his book of hadith, namely whether the tradition is used by the jurists as evidence or not in his book is thus accumulated traditions ma'mul (practical). At-Tirmidhi Hadith in terms of the filter is not valid or da'eef. That's why he always gives an assessment of the value of tradition, even the description of the comparison and perfection.

One of the privileges Sunan at-Tirmizi is the inclusion of a history of other companions of the issues dealt with in the hadith of the main traditions, whether it is the Creator or different. [12] Even the tertentangan Seara at all, directly or indirectly. In addition, the imam at-Tirmidhi in his book many noted a difference of opinion among the jurists on the subject and mention istinbat traditions are different, in that case and give judgment. This is what is seen as its own privileges. Sunan at-Tirmizi as reasonable in this case the main object of the science of hadith sahih hadith that is choosing to go against the interests and charities.

Another specialty Sunan at-Tirmizi is directly related to the science of Hadith is ta'wil al-Hadith. Loaded traditions clearly stated value, even values ​​that are considered important rawinya. The Book of Sunan at-Tirmizi considered positive because it can be used for practical application of the tradition-Siwak Siwak science of hadith, especially ta'lil.

In addition to the three features that are not found in other books of hadith, Imam at-Tirmidhi using specific terms that have been the talk of the scholars of hadith. The most popular is the term hasan sahih and invites controversy among scholars. This term is actually not the monopoly of priests Tirmizi but also used by Ali al-Madini, Ya'qub bin Syaibah and Abu Ali at-Thusi. Because the most widely used, it is she who is known for.

Various views of scholars about the term sahih hasan is as follows: [13]

A. hasan term is defined in terms of understanding the language is, that the tradition is very good in addition to a valid sanadnya. The reason this view because the at-Tirmizi sometimes use the term hasan hadith is clear to even maudhu da'eef '. This opinion is objectionable because among the scholars of hadith no one uses the term in the sense lughawi hasan.

2. isitlah hasan sahih isnad show the existence of two or more for an honor tradition. In other words, some degree sanadnya hasan and some are valid. But this opinion is considered weak because of the hadith is hasan sahih judged by him to a Gharib hadith.

3. the term is used to hasan hadith which has risen to its valid to mention two at once. Thus tradition is actually a sound hadith, but there are reservations about the conditions stipulated by hasan hadith Tirmizi that it should not be Gharib, but it may sound hadith Gharib. Unlikely that the two properties together in a single tradition.

4. the term is used because of doubts about the degree of party appraiser hadith. That it is a combination of term and the terms of the degree of hasan sahih. But there are reservations about this view, that such provisions do not exist among the scholars of hadith.

5. the term used to indicate differences in the hadith expert judgment, in other words there is a hasan hadeeth rate and there is a valid rate.

The method at-Tirmidhi Hadith in Developing Materials

At-Tirmizi put title at the beginning of each chapter, then put one or two traditions that can reflect and include the contents of the title, after which he expressed a personal opinion about the quality of the hadith if it sahih, hasan or da'eef. For this purpose he uses a term not normally used by previous scholars. He also lists the previous opinions, the lawyers and priests associated with various problems, more than that, he also indicates if there are hadiths narrated by other companions with respect to the same problem, even if he had a relationship with him .

C. Ratings and Comments Scholars and experts.

Actually, the priest at-Tirmizi own name with his book "Jami '" but jumhur scholars mention the book of Sunan, as ordered by the problem. As the book of fiqh in which there is hadi sahih, hasan and da'eef. He menyatakanj "I did not include in my book but the traditions have been practiced by some jurists but some traditions are".

Jumhur cleric Sunan at-Tirmizi recognize these high-value and the huge benefits, as well as the contents are rarely repeated. According to Ibn Hazm one should not practice what has been declared sahih or hasan by at-Tirmizi, because Tirmizi was an unknown person and his judgment can not be accepted. Imam at-Tirmidhi has also menghasankan in a hadith that there sanadnya Abdullah ibn Kathir is known as a liar.

[1] Nama lengkap ini adalah versi al-Khatib al-Baghdadi yang didukung oleh Abu ‘Ubaid al-Ajiri dan Abu Bakar bin Dash, menurut Abu Thohir versi Baghdadi ini yang paling tepat. Lih., Muhammad Ahmad Sa’id ‘Ali, ta’liq Sunan Abi Daud (Mesir: al-Halabi, 1952), h. 4.

[2] Abu Zahw, al-Hadis wa al-Muhaddisun (Libanon: Dar al-Kitab al-Arab, 1964), h. 360.

[3] Khalil Ahmad as-Saharanfuri, Bazl al-Majhud fi Halli Abi Daud (Libanon: Dar Kutub al-Islamiyah, 1939), h. 45.

[4] Ibnu Hajar al-Asqalani, Kitab Tahzib at-Tahzib (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1415), jil. I, h. 5.

[5] Ibnu Hajar al-Asqalani, Had as-Sari Muqaddimah Fath al-Bari (Mesir: al-Bab al-Halabi, 1962), h. 69.

[6] Lihat Fihris karya Abu Khair.

[7] Penjelasan ini dikutip dari Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Ishaq yang dikutip oleh Abdurrahman Muhammad Usman, Taqdim dalam Abu Hayib Muhammad Syams al-Haq al-Adzim ‘Abadi, Syarah Sunan Abi Daud (Mesir: al-Makatabah Salafiyah, 1979), h. 6.

[8] Surat beliau itu berjudul Risalah Abi Daud Ila Ahl Makkah.

[9] Ibid, h. 135

[10] Ahmad Muhammad, al-Jami’ as-Sahih (Kairo: al-Halaby, 1937), jil. I, h. 1.

[11] Abu Zahwu, al-Hadis, h. 360.

[12] Tim Penulis, Ensiklopedi Islam (Jakarta: PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve), jil V, h. 105.

[13] Ibid, h. 106-107.

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