Friday, May 11, 2012

Sanad FEEDBACK: Research Basics Sanad

Status and quality of the hadith, whether accepted or rejected, depending on the sanad and honor. If the sanad of hadith have fulfilled certain conditions, then the hadith is authentic in terms of sanadnya, but not necessarily in terms of matannya, conversely, if it turns out sanad dai'f, it automatically becomes da'eef though the tradition is sahih matannya later.

So important role in determining the status of sanad and the quality of a hadith, the hadith scholars have made efforts to know clearly about the state of sanad. Clearly an attempt to find out about the state of sanad. Efforts and activities are tangible in the form of research traditions. Sanad research, sometimes called external criticism or Naqd al-an-an-Naqd Kharijite or az-Zahiri. The urgency of this study relates to the position of Islamic tradition as the source of a second after the Koran, and therefore, if the terms of a tradition to be the argument is not met will lead to the occurrence or not of a true Islamic laws are formulated.

In this paper the authors will discuss the basics of research sanad, which includes: Understanding sanad criticism, Siwak and step sanad criticism activities, problems and examples sanad criticism.

B. Critics understanding Sanad

Term research activities sanad dipergununakan an-Naqd, said an-Naqd derived from Masdar, which means according to the same language that is: between something good and the bad. [1] The word also means an-Naqd picking dirham dirhams by issuing a from the false. [2] The word an-Naqd can also be interpreted by critics [3] The hadith scholars define the term an-Naqd according to the traditions that distinguish the authentic from the weak, well set siqah and disability status for the narrators. [4 ]

According to the language, meaning back or hold sanad (al-Mu'tamad). The bond that serves as a handle called a sanad to collect again. In terms, the science of hadith isnad mean ranks of those who convey a person to honor tradition or lineage (sequence) oarang who brought traditions from the Prophet, Companions, Successors, tabi 'at-the Successors, and so on up to the person who recorded the hadith them. [5]. So research sanad (an-al-Kharijite Naqd) is a tradition that external criticism is the study of the transmission procedure (sanad) from a narrator who is after another honor to convey the narrator last. [6]

D. Siwak validity of Sanad

The main purpose of the Siwak validity of the study was to determine the quality sanad of a Hadith if Hadith is accepted (Maqbul) or rejected (mardud). [7] Hadith whose quality does not meet certain conditions, syatrat, which in this case is accepted the terms ( Maqbul) was a hadith, the traditions can not be used as an argument. The terms of the received (Maqbul) was a hadith, the hadith must be valid, namely:

Sanad continued
Throughout the narrators in the sanad are 'fair
Throughout the narrators in the sanad are dabit
Sanad hadith escaped syuzzuz
Sanad hadith avoid 'illat [8]

Compliance is required, because the tradition is one source of Islamic teachings. The use of traditions that do not meet the requirements will result in accordance with the teachings of Islam is not what it should be. [9] The sanad of this study, it will be known what is stated as the Hadith of the Prophet it really can be accounted for validity comes from him or not. [10 ]

Hadith of the Prophet which is the object of research scholars of hadith are various categories of hadith ahad, the status of the hadith al-wurud Zanni, not until the status mutawatir category, while categorized mutawatir hadith, scholars consider it to be the object of research, because the tradition is no longer doubt mutawatir validity comes from the Prophet. [11]

The statement does not mean that scholars of hadith mutawatir can not do research anymore. Research remains to be done, but the research is not to know the quality of sanad is concerned, but to know or prove whether the status mutawatir traditions. If the results of the study have stated that the hadith is mutawatir, the research activities as the sanad of hadith ahad is not necessary. [12]

E. Steps To Do In Research Sanad

Basically the object of research is the sanad of hadith hadith, hadith isnad discussion is a very principled support in the science of hadith and is the main route to achieving that lofty goal which is to distinguish between the received tradition (Maqbul) and hadith are rejected (mardud) [13 ]

To know the traditions and mardud Maqbul, the scholars have created Siwak validity sanad of hadith, that all the conditions and criteria that must be owned by the hadith in question. M.Syuhudi Ismail in his book "Chain of Tradition Siwak validity" says that a hadith declared valid if it meets the requirements or criteria as follows:

Sanad continued
Throughout the narrators in the sanad are fair
Throughout the narrators in the sanad are dabit
Sanad hadith avoid syazz

a) Sanad Sanad tradition continued illat avoided. [14]

Sanad intent is to be continued every hadith narrators in the sanad, received a history of tradition from the closest previous narrators, such a state that lasted until the end of the sanad of hadith. [15] The procedure to be followed to determine the continued presence or absence of a sanad of hadith, are the research as follows:

First, note all the names of the narrators in the sanad are scrutinized. Second, studying the life history of each of the narrators. Third, examine the words that connects the transmitters of the narrators in the sanad are closest, ie words such as haddasany, haddasana, and others. [16]

b). Transmitters are fair

Fairness of a narrator, according to Ismail Syuhudi, must meet the following requirements:
Muslim
Mukallaf
Implement the provisions of Religion
Muru'ah maintain. [17]

Fathur Rahman quoted the opinions expressed by al-Radi, 'is is

force that drives the soul to always devoted, away from major sins, away from the habits of small sins and deeds left a stain muru'ah permissible. [18] There are several ways that guided the hadith scholars, to establish a just narrators namely: First, the popularity of primacy among the scholars of hadith narrators. Second, the critics' assessment of the narrators of hadith, which contains the disclosure of the advantages and disadvantages that exist in the narrators of hadith, the Third, the determination of Siwak al-Jarh wa al-ta'dil, which is used when the critics of hadith narrators, not private narrators are unanimous in assessing particular. [19]

c) transmitters are dabit

Dabit narrators are narrators who are familiar with a good history that he has heard, and able to convey the history that has been memorized without the addition and subtraction. [20] The scholars of hadith narrators who are dabit divide it to two kinds, namely: First, dabit Sadri , which have a strong memory, from receiving up to pass on to others, and his memory was capable issued when and wherever desired. Second, the book dabit maintaining its transmission through the written word to remember the tradition very well written, well maintain and narrated to others with care. [21]

Dabitan for determining the suitability of a narrators is based on history given by other known transmitters of the dabitannya. Compliance rate was probably just down to the level of meaning. [22]

d) Avoid syazz

Isim fail syazz sentence is the meaning of the verb Syazza outs of news people. [23]

The syazzan a tradition that lies to the resistance between a hadith narrated by a narrator who Maqbul the hadith narrated by a narrator who is more rajih (strong) thereof, caused by the excess amount or excess in the sanad-dabitan rawinya. [24]

M.Syuhudi Ismail, said the sanad syazzan new traditions can be known only after the research as follows: First, all honor sanad containing the main problem is the same hadith collected and compared. Second, the narrators throughout the sanad researched quality. Third, if all transmitters are siqah and there was a violation of the narrators of the sanad-sanad sanadnya other then that violates the sanad was called the syazz while others called the sanad mahfuz. [25]

e). Avoid illat

Illat according to the terms of the science of hadith is hidden because of damaging the quality of tradition, so it can not lead to the validity of a hadith. [26]

Hadith scholars generally say, most tradition-shaped illat:

First, the sanad which looks muttasil and marfu ', was muttasil and mauquf. Second, there was a mingling of the tradition with other traditions. Third, there was mention of a history of mistakes, because there are more than one transmitters have similar names are equally siqat quality. [27]

Mahmud at-Tabhan argue that there are four steps in the sanad criticism:
Looking through the biographies of the narrators of the book - the book is compiled by the scholars of hadith
Evaluating ke'adilan and kedabitan narrators, by reading and studying the opinions of experts and al-Jarh ta'dil
Researching kemuttasilan sanad
Researching Syazz and 'illat traditions.

Another opinion about the steps in the research sanad is Syuhudi Ismail as saying that there are 3 steps sanad of hadith research, as follows:
Perform al-I'tibar
Personally examined the transmitters and methods periwayatannya
Summing up the results of the study sanad

Of measures proposed by the research sanad both experts above, it can be concluded that conducted the research stages sanad is:

A. Looking at the tradition of the original with all the chain of transmission lines

how:

Search traditions in the original source is called in Arabic by al-Hadith takhrij or takhrij according to a simple understanding. Takhrij in this sense can be done in various ways. Basically there are five kinds takhrij methods are: [28]
Through narration Takhrij Friend

This method can only be done if the name of a friend who narrated the hadith of the Prophet had in mind. If the name of the companions who narrated the hadith being traced is not yet known, this method can not be used. This method can be applied to three types of hadith, which is the book Musnad, and al-Mu `jam athraf.
Words Beginning With Tradition Takhrij

Search tradition in this method is performed on the initial word of honor tradition. This method can be done with the help of some books athraf the composition according to alphabetical order of the initial word of honor traditions mentioned above. Athraf this type of example is the book of al-Hadith Mausu'ah Athraf-Nabawi an ash-Sharif Zaglul.Metode work can also be done with the help of famous books of Hadith are widely circulated and known in the Islamic community, both status sahih, hasan, incompetent and maudu '

3. Through Takhrij Main Theme

This method requires knowledge of Islamic studies in general, and specifically the study of fiqh so that research can detect a subject related to the tradition that is being traced. This method can be done through the book Miftah al-Sunnah Kunuz AJ Wensinck work.
Through this method the Hadith state

This method can be done after knowing the traditions, sanad or matannya. For example sanad studied hadith known incompetent or mursal. These traditions can be checked in the books that raise such weak hadith al-Ahadith Genealogy Dha'ifah ADH-wa-al-Maudud as Sijistani.
Through the words of Matan Takhrij

Penulusuran tradition was carried over a single word that is part of the text or honor tradition. This method can be used with the help of the book of al-Mu `jam al-Mafahrats Alfazh li al-Hadith an-Nabawi work Wensinck AJ et al. This book sangant useful reference in search of hadith.

Search for words in the book of al-Mu `jam al-Alfaz Mufahras li Hadith an-Nabawi. For example, the hadith

Said there are 441 pages in the book Mu `jam, with the formula

Meaning: This hadith found in Sahih Bukhari said Mawakitu One of the number 38 as-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim book of Masajid number 309,314,315. Sunan Abi Daud chapter one hadith number 11, Sunan at-Tirmizi chapter as-One hadith number 16 17. Sunan an-Nasa'i chapter mawaqit hadith number 52-54. Sunan Ibn Majah chapter as-One hadith number 10. Darimi chapter Sunan ad-as-One hadith number 26. Muatta 'Malik as-One hadith chapter 25 and chapter numbers Safar hadith number 77. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Hadith No. 3, 100,242,267,269,282,225.

2. make the scheme sanad

3. Identify any transmitters on:

- Full name

- Died year

- Teachers and students

- Assessment of the critics

- Legal Affairs Committee

Here's how:

- Learn the history of each narrators:

a. Through the books of Rijal al-Hadith, for instance the book of al-Tahzib Tahzib arrangement Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalany, and the book of al-Kasyif arrangement of Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Zahaby

b. With a view to find out:

1). Whether any transmitters in the chain of transmission is known to be a fair and dabit, and do not like hiding defects (tadlis)

2). Is among the narrators of narrators with the closest relationship was found between: a) kesezamanan in his lifetime and 2) the teacher-pupil in the transmission of hadith.

- Assessment of the critics, after assessing the transmitters of the critics metetapkan stutus siqah, da'eef or BIH labaksa of narrators.

- Legal Affairs Committee, after identifying the transmitters and the hadith critics see the assessment, the researcher determine the status of these traditions, whether sahih, hasan, da'eef or maudu '

4. Researching ittisal, syuzuz, 'iilat

5. Summing up the value chain of transmission.

F. Some Problems in Critical Chain Activities and Examples

The sanad criticism often raised the question in the final assessment of the sanad studied, which some scholars of hadith narrators assess specific positive and negative the other judge. Then the solution to this problem is one of three possibilities.

Jarh precedence over ta'dil absolutely, because the people who pass judgment Jarh have more knowledge on the rate ta'dil.

Putting 'fair on the grounds Jarh absolute origin of a narrator is' fair.
Jarh precedence over the terms ta'dil weakness is the cause defects described

Of the three alternatives, the third option seems more acceptable. Apart from different transmitters are often judged, the critics also have different criteria, which are causing problems in the sanad criticism.

Az-Zahabi (w H 245) as quoted by Ibn as-One (w 634 H), hadith critics are divided to 3 groups, namely:

A. Transmitters are very strict (Mutasyaddid) in their assessments, both at-Legal Affairs Committee as well as at-ta'dil (Muta'annit Jarh wa fi al-fi at-ta'dil mutasyaddid). If they judge a person narrators with siqah assessment, then their judgment can be guided, but if they menta'dilkan transmitters so their assessment can not be guided when a critic mu'tadil provide different assessment gave a positive assessment. Among the narrators are included in this group are: al-Jauzajani, Abu Hatim ar-Razi, an-Nasa'i, al-Hajjaj bin Syu'bah, Ibn al-Qattan, Ibn Ma'in, Madini Ibn Yahya al-Qattan and .

2. Transmitters that are loose (muttasahil) in their assessments of al-Jarh and at-ta'dil. When they gave judgment to someone incompetent narrators, then provide an assessment siqah, then their judgment can not be diperpegangi long as there are different judgments of other critics. Among those included in this group are: at-Tirmidhi, al-Hakim, Ibn Hibban, al-Bazzar, Shafi'i, at-Tabarani, Abu Bakr al-Haisami, al-Munziri, at-Tahawi, Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Sakan, Ibn al-Bayhaqi, al-Baqawi, al-'isyami, as-Sayuti.

3. Transmitters are moderate (Mu'tadil). In the event of contradictions among the al-Mutasyaddidun assessment and mutasahilun, then their judgment is always a grip. Among the critics included in this group is al-Bukhari, ad-Dar al-Qutni, Abu Daud, Ahmad bin Hanbal, az-Zahabi, and Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani [29]

To deal with a tradition that sanadnya much, but all of them weak, so in this case should be examined to-daifannya location. A weak sanad still weak when the daifannya was located on the same narrators without mutabi 'are able to "help".

Hadith which contains a dialogue between the Prophet and Mu'az bin Jabal on the order of the source of Islamic law when he was sent to Yemen is one example; Sanad is pretty much tradition. Mukharrij her besides Abu Dawud and at-Turmuzi, also Ahmad bin Hanbal and al-Darimi. Throughout the sanad of hadith is da'eef and location of the daifannya Ahmad bin Hanbal is the same, ie both by al-Haris bin 'Amr very poor quality, plus al-Haris propped his memoirs to the narrators who mubham (obviously not the individual ). In the meantime, the state sanadnya Abu Dawud and Ahmad sanadnya one of the worse because those weaknesses are compounded by the weakness of the brstatus mursal sanad. [30]

To overcome the problem of the situation sanad as the example above, required precision in the make i'tibar, in addition to al-Hadith takhrij to convey the same traditions and tahqiq muqaranah method.

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References and footnote
[1] Lois Ma'luf, Al-Munjid fi al-Lughat wa al-knows best, cet. 34, (Beirut: Dar al-Masyriq, 1994), p. 830.



[2] Ibn Muhammad ibn Mukarram Manzur, Lisan al-'Arab, Juz XIV (Beirut: Dar al-Turas Ihy al-' Arabi, 1995), p. 254.



[3] Critics have considered the importance of distinguishing between right and that is not true, the beautiful and the ugly, are not valuable and worth, See Department of Education and Culture, Encyclopedia of Indonesia, cet. 4 (New York: New endeavor Van Hoeve, 1992) p. 1981.



[4] MMAzmi, Manhaj al-Naqd inda al-Muhaddisin, Nasy'atun wa tarikuhu (Riyad: Maktabat al-Kausar, 1410H/1990), p.5. See also Ahmad Syayb, Usul al-al-Adabi Naqd, (Egypt: al-Maktabat Nahdat Misriyyah, 1964), h.116.



[5] Ramli Abdul Wahid, Hadith Science Studies, cet.1 (London: PP2-IK, 2003), p. 25.



[6] Hussein Yusuf, Sahih Criteria (Critical Chain and Matan), (Yokyakarta, Muhammadiyah University, 1996), p. 30-35.



[7] Nur al-Din 'Atay. Manhar al-naqd fi Ulum al-Hadith (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1988), p.5.



[8] Syuhudi Ismail, KaedahKesahihan Chain of Tradition (New York: Crescent Star, 1988), h.126



[9] Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Tradition (New York: Pearl sources Widya, 2001) h.343



[10] Syuhudi Ismail, Siwak validity sanad, p. 5



[11] Ibid, h.4



[12] Syuhudi, Methodology, p. 24



[13] Nur al-Din, al-Manhar Naqd, p. 123



[14] Syuhudi, Siwak, h, 126



[15] Subhi as-Salih, al-Hadith wa Ulumul Mustalahuhu (Beirut: Dar al-al-Malayin Ilmi, 1977), h.45. See Fathur Rahman, Overview Musthalahul Hadith, London: al-Ma'arif .1974), h.122



[16] Syuhudi, Siwak, p. 128.



[17] Ibid, p. 134



[18] Rahman, Mustalahul Overview, p. 120. See Ajjaj, Usul al-Hadith, p. 305



[19] Syuhudi, Siwak, p. 134



[20] Ibid, p 0.135 to 136



[21] Rahman, Mustalahul Overview, p. 121, see Suparta and Ranuwijaya, Science of Hadith, (London: King Grafindo Persada, 1996), p. 141



[22] Ajjaj al-Khatib, Usul al-Hadith, (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, tt)), h.232



[23] Ma'luf, Al-Munjid, h.379







[24] Ajjaj, Usul al-Hadith, p 291



[25] Syuhudi, Siwak, p. 144



[26] Ajjaj, Proposal, p. 291



[27] Syuhudi, Siwak, p. 149



[28] Ramli, Science Studies tradition, p. 259-264.



[29] Abd al-entities Muhammad 'Abd al-Latif al-Ilm wa at-ta'dil Jarh Dirasah wa Tatbiq (Cairo: al azhar Jami'ah, tt) h. 47-48.



[30] Syuhudi, Methodology, p. 24.

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