Thursday, May 24, 2012

Riba in the Qur'an

Riba means excess or addition. By Personality, in addition to the capital and money lent must be received by the berpiutang accordance with a term loan and a specified percentage. Al Quran has forbidden riba could be suggested by analyzing the content of the verses of Ali 'Imran al-Baqarah 130 and 278, or more specifically to understand the key words in these verses, namely (a) adh'afan mudha'afah; (b) baqiya ma mi al-riba, and (c) lakum ru'usu amwalikum fa, la wa la tazhlimuna tuzhlamun. This paper will try to elaborate on usury in the Koran Dissent in the application of understanding on the practices of economic transactions have taken place since the friends and allegedly will continue as long as it keeps coming up new forms of economic transactions.

These differences are partly due to the recent revelation about riba down to the Messenger of Allah. some time before his death, until 'Umar ra very long for the clarity of this usury issue. He said: "Verily, including in the latter part of the Quran that down, are the verses of riba. Prophet died before he explained. So leave what is doubtful to what you do not doubt you. [1] Doubt fall into the forbidden riba It makes the companions, as it is said 'Umar, "leaving nine-tenths of a lawful". [2] This paper will try to elaborate on riba in the Qur'an.

B. Riba in Al Quran

Riba means excess or addition. By Personality ', in addition to the capital and money lent must be received by the berpiutang accordance with a term loan and a specified percentage. Arabs know the usury of the Jews who lived in Madinah many. Before Islam came, the Jews used to do with the usurious interest rates ranging from 40 to 100 percent. The word usury in the Koran is found seven times in the letter of al-Baqarah verse 275, 276, 278 and 279, a letter ar-Rum verse 39, the letter an-Nisa verse 161 and the letter of Ali Imran verse 130.

Islam prohibits "riba" in all its forms. The ban in the Koran and the Hadith the Prophet Muhammad. According to the Koran passages, the legal basis for the gradual prohibition of usury is as follows. In the first stage, dropped a letter ar-Rum verse 39. In these verses Allah denounce usury and praising charity. This verse subtly mentions that riba is not good and no benefit to the perpetrator because the perpetrator is not going to get a reward from Allah SWT. In contrast, in this verse is explained that the good deeds and praise is charity that will result in a reward from Allah in the hereafter.

In phase two, down the letter an-Nisa verse 161. In this verse, Allah describes the Jews are forbidden usury. However, they violate the ban and this is one cause of the wrath of God against them. In this verse, Allah SWT has hinted that usury be prohibited or forbidden for Jews, but have not found the passage that absolutely clear that usury is forbidden for Muslims.

In the third stage, down the letter Ali Imran verse 130. In this verse there is a passage which clearly forbids usury, which is accompanied with an explanation stating that usury is extortion of the economically powerful to the weak economy that if you lack the persecution. With usury, those who owe the generally weak (orphans) are not able to repay its debt to the lenders.

If you can not repay the debt at the time appointed, the parties were forced to double the payment of debts owed in return for payment delay period. Riba is called riba an-nasi'ah (usury delay) and the paragraph is judged unlawful by juz'i (in part). That is, usury is forbidden to have only a double nature (adh'afan muda'afan. Regarding usury berlifat not double, the law established by God in the next paragraph down.

As for the fourth stage or final stage down al-Baqarah verse 275, 276, 278 and 279. In the verses there is a description which forbids usury absolutely, clearly and unequivocally, no doubt terapat. The second stage of the latter explained that usury in kind and any form remains illegal and not allowed to take and eat. Even God Almighty to rule men of war for a double that has not been collected. [3]

C. Riba Al Quran

The word riba literally means in terms of "excess". So if we only stop to the meaning of "excess", the pagan logic presented above is quite reasonable. Although the Al-Quran just answer their question by saying, "Lord trade and forbidden usury" (Sura 2:275), and penghalalan prohibition is certainly not done in the absence of "something" that sets it apart, and "something" that is the cause of keharamannya .

In the Koran is found the word riba repeated eight times, contained in four letters, namely Al-Baqarah, Ali 'Imran, Al-Nisa', and Al-Rum. The first three letters are "Madaniyyah" (dropped after the Prophet migrated to Medina), Al-Rum was the letter is "Makiyyah" (go down before he moved). This means that the first verse is talking about riba al-Rum verse 39: And something riba (excess) that you give so it adds to the advantages of human harts pads, then usury was not increase with Allah.

Al-Sayuthi further, citing the narrations of Bukhari, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Mardawaih, and Al-Bayhaqi, argue that the last paragraph down to the Messenger of Allah. are the verses contained in the circuit last explanation of riba, [4] is the verse of Surat al-Baqara 278-281: O ye who believe, fear Allah, and leave the rest of usury, if ye are believers.

Furthermore al-Zanjani, [5] based on some history, among others, of Ibn al-Nadim, and conclusions expressed by Al-Biqa'i and orientalist Noldeke, argued that the letter of Ali 'Imran first down from Surat al-Nisa'. If their conclusion is accepted, it means subsection 130 letters Ali 'Imran which expressly forbids usury takes a double, was received by the second paragraph of the Prophet, while al-Nisa verse 161' which contains a condemnation of the Jews who devour usury is a revelation The third stage in a series of talks Al-Quran on usury.

According to Al-Maraghi [6] and Al-Shabuni, [7] the stages of the Quran talks about the same as riba stages of talks about The wine (liquor), which in the first phase merely reflects the existence of negative elements in it (Al-Rum : 39), then followed with a hint of keharamannya (Al-Nisa ': 161). Later in the third stage, as explicitly stated one of the forbidden shape (Ali 'Imran: 130), and at the last stage, totally forbidden in its various forms (Al-Baqarah: 278).

In a set of demands on the stages mentioned above, the exegete is not put forward a history of supporting it, while the scholars agree that it is impossible to know the order of the decline based on a verse without an authentic history, and that the decline of letter precedes another letter does not automatically make the entire paragraph in the letter which stated that precedes the first down the entire paragraph in the letter stated down later. On the basis of these considerations, we tend to define and discuss only the first and last paragraph concerning usury, then made the two verses are not clear position as the stage mid-stages of decline.

This would not be much impact in understanding the meaning or essence of the forbidden riba al-Quran, because as stated above, the Al-Nisa '161 is a criticism to the Jews who practice usury. Unlike the case with paragraph 130 letters Ali 'Imran who use redaction ban expressly against the believers not to practice usury in adh'afan mudha'afah. Paragraph Ali 'Imran, both used as second stage verse and third stages, it was obvious decline precedes the Al-Baqarah verse 278, and in the same drop after decline in Al-Rum verse 39.

On the other hand, Al-Rum verse 39 which is the first verse is talking about usury, considered by scholars Tafsir not talking about the forbidden riba. Al-Qurtubi [8] and Ibn al-'Arabi [9] called usury verse is spoken of as usury halal. Ibn Kathir was named usury permissible. [10] They all refer to the companions of the Prophet, especially Ibn 'Abbas and some of the Successors in the Riba which interprets the verse as a "gift" made by people who expected excess return.

On the basis of differences in the meaning of the word riba al-Rum verse above with the word riba in other verses, Al-Al-Burhan Zarkasyi in [11] to interpret because the difference of writing in MUSHs-haf, that the word riba al-Rum in a letter written without using the letter waw [Arabic], and in other papers using [Arabic]. From here, Rashid Rida made the starting point of his description of the forbidden riba in the Qur'an begins with the verse 'Ali' Imran 131. [12]

If so, a brief discussion of usury is forbidden, the Qur'an can be presented by analyzing the content of the verses of Ali 'Imran al-Baqarah 130 and 278, or more specifically to understand the key words in these verses, namely (a ) adh'afan mudha'afah; (b) baqiya ma mi al-riba, and (c) lakum ru'usu amwalikum fa, la wa la tazhlimuna tuzhlamun. By understanding these key words, expected to be found the answer on usury is forbidden, the Qur'an. In other words, "is that which makes it unlawful excess."

D. Regarding the various views on the meaning of Adh'afan Mudha'afah

In terms of language, the word is plural adh'af (plural) of Da'eef word which translates as "something together with something else is the same with (double)". So adh'afan mudha'afah is doubling that many times. Al-Thabraniy argued in his commentary about history that can lead us to understanding adh'afan mudha'afah or usury in effect at the time of fall of the Al-Quran. Histories include:

Of Ibn Zaid that his father has said that "usury at the time of ignorance is the multiplication and age (animals). A person who owes, if the payment arrives, met by the debtor and said to him," Pay me or you added me. "So if the creditor has something (for payment), he paid off his debts, and if he did not make the debt (if an animal) an animal that was older (than was ever borrowed). If he borrowed a year old and has entered the second year (bint makhadh), maketh payment bint labun then aged two years and has entered its third year. then be hiqqah (which enters its fourth year), and so become jaz'ah (which enters its fifth year), so on. Meanwhile, if the borrowed material (money), the debtor came to collect, if he is not able, he would double it to be 100, in the next year to 200 and if not yet paid maketh 400. Similarly, every year until he was able to pay. [13]

Mujahid narrated that usury is forbidden by Allah SWT is practiced at the time of ignorance, namely that a person has a receivable to others, then the borrower said to him, "you (optional) so in return for payment delays", then the payment ditundalah untuknya.177

Meanwhile, Qatadah states that usury is the ignorance on the sale of one person to another (with payment) to a certain period. When you've reached that time, was in question does not have the ability to pay, ditambahlah (amount owed) and the deferred payment period.

Histories at the top and a matching her interpretation put forward by scholars when discussing paragraph 130 letters Ali 'Imran. There are several things that should be highlighted regarding the narrations has been put forward. First, the addition of the amount of receivables which is described by three history is not done at the time of the transaction, but raised by creditors (to the history-2) or debtors (history to-3) at the time of the fall time of payment. In this case, Mustafa Ahmad al-Maraghi (1883-1951) remarked in his commentary:

"Usury is usury at the time of ignorance which is named after the period we are now with fahisy riba (usury cruel or excessive), the multiple advantages. Additional fahisy (exaggerated) occurs after the arrival time of the settlement, and none of the additional (which is cruel or excessive) in the first transaction, such as giving him 100 with the (return) 110 or more or less (than that). Apparently they were feeling well off with a little advantage (slight increase in the first transaction). But , if the repayment has arrived and not yet repaid, while the borrower when it was in their grasp, they are forced to hold a doubling in return for the delay. And this is called riba al-nasi'ah (riba due to delays). Ibn 'Abbas argues that the texts of Al-Quran refers to riba al-nasi'ah known (at the time).

Second, the doubling of the first mentioned in history is the product of two times, while the second and third in the history of proliferation is not mentioned, but the mere addition of the loan amount. This leads to one of two possibilities: (1) understand the history of each stand-alone basis, so understand that "usury is forbidden is the addition of the amount of debt under certain conditions, the addition of either double or not double; (2) integrate these histories, so understand that the addition is meant by the narrations that do not mention the multiplication is the addition of multiples. This second opinion is supported by the editors of legitimate birth.

In describing the narrations cited above, and other histories, Al-Tabari concludes that usury adh'afan mudha'afah is the addition of the amount of credit due to delay in payment or what is called the riba al-nasi'ah. According to Al-Tabari, a person who practiced usury murbin named because it doubled its wealth at the expense of the sacrifice of the debtor, either directly or additions due to suspension of payment. Al-Tabari conclusions are supported by Muhammad Rashid Rida that he also was the conclusion of Ibn Qayyim.

'Abd Al-Namir Mun'in, a member of the Board of leading scholars and representatives of Al-Azhar Sheikh Al-Azhar University, concluded that: "Usury is forbidden depicted on a debtor who has property that was visited by a person in need, then he offered him an additional amount of the obligation to pay its debts in return for a year or a month payment delay, and in the end in question (the borrower) and the subject was forced to accept the offer are not willing. "[14]

Above has been stated that the word means adh'afan mudha'afah doubled. While the narrations mentioned there that explain multiplication and some are simply additions. Now we again ask: What is forbidden is only that the addition of a double or addition of any form under certain conditions?

What is certain is that the text of the verse means "double". Those who hold to the text states that this prohibition is a requirement. This means that if not double, then it is not haram. While others argue that the text is not a requirement but an explanation of the form of usury that is often practiced in the fall of the verses of the Koran. So, they said further, adding even without doubling is forbidden.

In our opinion, to accomplish this is to note down the last paragraph concerning usury, in particular the key words that are in there. Because, although the text adh'afan mudha'afah a requirement, but in the end that determines the essence of riba that is forbidden is the verses of the third stage.

Here is the first key is the word of God made wa ma dzaru bagiya min al-riba. The question that arises is: Does the word riba al-shaped ma'rifah (definite) This refers to usury adh'afan mudha'afah or not?

Rashid Rida in this case put forward three reasons to prove that the word al-riba in Al-Baqarah verse is referring to the word riba al-shaped adh'afan mudha'afah itu.183 First, the rules of language, the rule of repetition of vocabulary in the form of ma 'rifah. The definition by Rashid Rida is a rule that states if there is a recurring vocabulary ma'rifah form, the definition of the vocabulary (which is repeated) is equal to the first vocabulary. Said Ali al-riba on 'Imran 130 in the form ma'rifah, as does the Al-Baqarah 278. So this means that usury is referred to in paragraph last stage is the same as usury in the second stage is shaped adh'afan mudha'afah.

Second, rules that do not understand the verse by verse the same unconditional but conditional. The application of this principle in these verses is to understand the meaning of riba al-riba al-Baqarah verse in which it is not conditional on the word al-riba adh'afan mudha'afah conditional on Ali 'Imran. So, what is meant by al-riba in the last paragraph is riba stages a double that.

Third, observed by Rashid Rida Al-Quran that talks about usury always be bound up or are faced with talk of alms, and usury named as zhulm (persecution or oppression).

What is stated by Rashid Rida on the intended meaning of usury by the Al-Quran on stage last verse in Al-Baqarah, it still can be rejected by some scholars - among others by stating that the rules of language that expresses it can not be applied except in series editor of the arrangement, not as far apart in the editorial by Ali Al-Baqarah 'Imran, and by stating that the word adh'afan mudha'afah not provided but merely an explanation of the unusual circumstances when it is, and thus the second rule would not be applied. However, according to the opinion of the writer, Rashid Rida conclusion is justified. The justification is based on the narrations are clear and many of the reasons Nuzul Al-Baqarah verse is.

Conclusion narrations include:

(A) Al-'Abbas (the Prophet's uncle) and a family of Bani Al-Mughirah work together to give a usurious debt to the people of the tribes Tsaqif. Then with the advent of Islam (and diharamkannya usury) they still have (the debtors) that many of the remaining property, then revealed the verse (Al-Baqarah 278 to prohibit them pick up the rest of their wealth in the form of usury they practice style that ignorance.

(B) The verse comes down Tsaqif tribes who practice usury, then (they converted to Islam) and deal with the Prophet for not doing more usury. But at the time of opening of the city of Makkah, they still want to collect the remaining money from the usury that they had not picked that they did before the fall of the prohibition of usury, though they think the ban is not retroactive. Then came down the verse to affirm the prohibition of war levy.

On the basis of these histories and other histories, Ibn Jarir said that this verse means: "Leave the demands of what remains of usury, the excess of your capital ..." Therefore, the exact translation was found in the Quran and Translation, published by the Ministry of Religious Affairs, the "Leave of war that have not been collected." On this basis, it is not appropriate to make sense of usury in the last paragraph that exceeds the definition of riba down in paragraph Ali 'Imran ago (adh'afan mudha'afah). Because riba is riba is that they did in the past (ignorance). So in the end it can be concluded that the forbidden riba al-Quran is mentioned as adh'afan termed mudha'afah or riba al-nasiah. Returning to the initial problem. Does this mean that if the addition or excess is not to be "multiplied" into Al-Quran is not forbidden?

The answer, in our opinion, there is the next key word, which is fa lakum ru'usu amwalikum (capitals for you you) (Sura 2:279). In the sense that they are entitled to receive back only their capitals. if so, any additional or excess of that capital is collected under conditions similar to what happened in the fall of the verses of riba can not be justified. And thus this keyword specifies that any addition or excess of either double or not, has been forbidden by the fall of Al-Quran verse. And this means that the word adh'afan mudha'afah not provided but merely an explanation of riba that is their common practice.

This makes the conclusions obtained mudha'afah adh'afan word problems are not important anymore, because if he is a condition or not, what is with multiplication or not, in the end that is forbidden is any kind of excess. However, it should be underlined that the excess in question is in the same condition as it did in the fall of Al-Quran and that implied by the cover of Al-Baqarah verse 279, that is wa la la tazhlimun tuzhlamun (you do not persecute nor persecuted).

 Conclusions obtained from the narrations about the practice of usury in the fall of Al-Quran, as has been stated above, indicates that the practice of persecution and oppression of containing people in need and who should get a helping hand. These conclusions were confirmed by the closing verses of Al-Baqarah 279 above, as before he was reinforced by the description of usury diperhadapkannya with the charity, as stated Rashid Rida, who showed that the borrower's needs and the urgency of such a situation so severe, so naturally he was given relief charity, not a loan, or at least given a loan without burying charity. Then in paragraph 280 stated that, and if the debtor is in difficulty (and is unable to pay at a set time) then grant him time until he had to repay, and you menyedekahkan (some or all of the debt) is better for you if ye only knew. The verses above further strengthen the conclusion that the excess is levied, especially when the form of multiplication, is the persecution for the borrower.

E. Conclusion

Riba means excess or addition. By Personality ', in addition to the capital and money lent must be received by the berpiutang accordance with a term loan and a specified percentage. The word usury in the Koran is found seven times in the letter of al-Baqarah verse 275, 276, 278 and 279, a letter ar-Rum verse 39, the letter an-Nisa verse 161 and the letter of Ali Imran verse 130. Islam forbids usury in all its forms. usury in the fall of Al-Quran is the excess collected with the amount of debt that contains elements of persecution and oppression, not just the excess or additional amount owed. Prohibition of usury process occurs in three stages as described above.

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References and Footnote
Daftar Pustaka
  • Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla. Jilid V. Mesir: Al-Munir, 1350 H.
  • Katsir, Isma'il Ibn, Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Azhim, jil. III. Singapura: Sulaiman Mar'iy, t.t.
  • Maraghiy, Ahmad Mushthafa, Tafsir Al-Maraghiy, jil. III. Mesir: Mushthafa Al-Halabiy, 1946.
  • Muhammad Abu Bakar, Ahkam Al-Qur'an, tahqiq Muhammad Ali Al-Bajawi, jil. III. Mesir: Isa Al-Halabiy, 1957.
  • Nandr, Abdul Mun'im, Al-Ijtihad . Kairo: Dar Al-Suruq, 1986.
  • Qurthubiy, Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Anshariy, Al-Jami' li Ahkam Al-Qur'an, jil. XIV. Kairo: Dar Al-Kitab, 1967.
  • Ridha, Muhammad Rasyid, Tafsir Al-Manar, jil. III. Mesir: Dar Al-Manar, 1376 H.
  • Shabuniy, Muhammad 'Ali, Tafsir Ayat Al-Ahkam, jil. I. Beirut: Dar Al-Qalam, 1971.
  • Suyuthiy, Jalaluddin, Al-Itqan fi 'Ulum Al-Qur'an, jhil. I. Mesir: Al-Azhar, 1318 H.
  • Tim Penulis, Ensiklopedi Islam. jil. VII. Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 2001.
  • Thabariy, Muhammad Ibn Jarir, Jami'Al-Bayan fi Tafsir Al-Qur'an, jil. IV. Mesir:Isa Al-Halabiy, 1954.
  • Zanjaniy, Abdullah, Tarikh Al-Qur'an. Beirut: Al-'Alamiy, 1969.
  • Zarkasyiy, Badruddin, Al-Burhan 'Ulum Al-Qur'an, Tahqiq Muhammad Abu Al-Fadhil, jil. I. Mesir: Isa Al-Halabiy, 1957.
  • [1] Ibn Hazm, Al-Muhalla, (Mesir: Al-Munir, 1350 H), Jilid VH1, h. 477.
  • [2] Ibid.
  • [3] Tim Penulis, Ensiklopedi Islam (Jakarta: Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, 2001), jil. VII, h. 207.
  • [4] Jalaluddin Al-Suyuthiy, Al-Itqan fi 'Ulum Al-Qur'an (Mesir: Al-Azhar, 1318 H), Jilid I, h. 27.
  • [5] Abdullah Al-Zanjaniy, Tarikh Al-Qur'an (Beirut: Al-'Alamiy, 1969), h. 60.
  • [6] Ahmad Mushthafa Al-Maraghiy, Tafsir Al-Maraghiy (Mesir: Mushthafa Al-Halabiy, 1946), jilid III, h. 59 dst.
  • [7] Muhammad 'Ali Al-Shabuniy, Tafsir Ayat Al-Ahkam (Beirut: Dar Al-Qalam, 1971), jilid I, h. 389.
  • [8] Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Anshariy Al-Qurthubiy, Al-Jami' li Ahkam Al-Qur'an (Kairo: Dar Al-Kitab, 1967), jilid XIV, h. 36.
  • [9] Abu Bakar Muhammad bin Abdillah (Ibn Al-'Arabiy), Ahkam Al-Qur'an, tahqiq Muhammad Ali Al-Bajawi (Mesir: Isa Al-Halabiy, 1957), Jilid III, h. 1479.
  • [10] Isma'il Ibn Katsir, Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Azhim (Singapura: Sulaiman Mar'iy, t.t.), jilid III, h. 434.
  • [11] Lihat Badruddin Al-Zarkasyiy, Al-Burhan 'Ulum Al-Qur'an, Tahqiq Muhammad Abu Al-Fadhil (Mesir: Isa Al-Halabiy, 1957), jilid I., h. 409.
  • [12] Muhammad Rasyid Ridha, Tafsir Al-Manar, Dar Al-Manar (Mesir: t.p, 1376 H), jilid III, h. 113.
  • [13] Lihat Muhammad Ibn Jarir Al-Thabariy, Jami'Al-Bayan fi Tafsir Al-Qur'an (Mesir:Isa Al-Halabiy, 1954), Jilid IV, h. 90.
  • [14] Abdul Mun'im Al-Nandr, Al-Ijtihad (Kairo: Dar Al-Suruq, 1986), h. 351.

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