Thursday, May 17, 2012


The Umayyads were the first dynasty that controlled politics in Islam. As the first dynasty, the dynasty's much to build the foundations of governance. This dynasty is the dynasty that is incentive to expand their territories. It is inevitable that the first Umayyad dynasty established in Damasqus has contributed heavily in the development of Islamic civilization, whether in politics, economics and education. Besides, what makes this dynasty has an important role in the development of Islamic civilization is the exchange of forms of governance are not passed on to the caliphate became hereditary form of the royal reins of leadership passed to the crown prince. Paper will break down some of the Umayyads in Damasqus development, political dynamics, economic , religious and intellectual progress as well as several other relevant studies.

B. The transition process to the Caliph Mu `Hand awiyah

Intermediate position of Caliph `Ali bin Abi Talib (603 M/40 H) into the hands of Mu` bin Abi Sufyan awiyah (41-61 H/661-680 M), not through direct consultation, as was done by the previous caliphs, will but through a series of events that occurred at the time. Where the event begins at the end of `Uthman bin` Affan (576-656 AD) which was considered by many to have deviated from the line set by his predecessor. Ie by raising the relative priority in government affairs. In the case of appointment of officials who are the "Thulaqa" 1.

`Uthman's policies like this, causing resentment among the general public, which in turn lead to unrest and chaos. Widespread unrest grew and turned into a rebellion that finally did the Caliph `Uthman bin` Affan was killed.

At the time of chaos going on, `Ali ibn Abi Talib was inducted into the Caliph` Uthman replace. But Ali was not able to cope with the situation, since the emergence of a new uprising with demands. Among these are the Mu `awiyah avenge the death of` Uthman, `Ali demanded that he hand over the killer so he kills them with his hands 2.

Mu `awiyah initially just demanded the death of` Uthman, but 'Ali thought that Mu `awiyah opposes and intends to overthrow his power, so that` Ali dismissed from the post of governor of Sham who had been in since the Caliph `Umar dudukinya and` Uthman 3.

Realizing his position is threatened, Mu `awiyah trying to find support among the population of Sham. He no longer obey `Ali as Caliph, he even wanted to use its territory for troops fighting the central government, together with` Amr ibn `Ash, he decided to fight` Ali and lay the responsibility to prosecute the murder of `Uthman on the shoulder 4.

After the failed peace, then there was fighting between `Ali and Mu` awiyah which occurred near the river Furat 5. `Ali's forces succeeded in repelling the Mu` awiyah forces, but with the cunning of `Amr ibn` Ash, he picked up the Koran in the javelin tip of his sword and shouted "this is what will be the judge between us and you". And finally it came to pass between them with raised tahkim judge, `Amr ibn` Ash of the Mu `awiyah and Abu Musa al-Ash` ari from the Ali. Once again with his cunning, `Amr ibn` Ash can beat Abu Musa. Abu Musa was asked first to speak and announced the resignation and dismissal of `Ali, but not with` Amr ibn `Ash. He raised Mu `awiyah with the words:" I set my friends (ie Mu `awiyah) as Caliph, for he was entitled to avenge relatives on` Uthman bin `Affan and the right to replace the position" 6. After that, the Mu `awiyah back with his troops to Sham to cement his position and
`Ali went back to the city of Kufa and getting ready to invade the Sham, but in the end` Ali ibn Abi Talib was killed at the hands ibn Muljim 7.

Later Hasan assumed the mandate of his supporters. That is part of the population of Iraq. But Hasan could not carry out that responsibility, then he handed over his post to the Mu `awiyah with security requirements and the rights of all troops and followers of` Ali 8. Hasan inability carry out that responsibility, because many of the problems in the face it 9.

After the surrender, Hassan and Hussein and all the people of Kufa membai Mu `at` awiyah, so named that year by al-jama `Amu` ah (of unity). Because the people are united under the leadership of a Caliph 10.

Thus it is entirely mutlaklah government in power awah Mu `bin Abi Sufyan awiyah and enactment of Damascus as the capital of his kingdom. Switch the system of government to the system of Khilafah system Daulah (Kingdom of) 11.

C. State of the Umayyads in Damascus

Daula's name comes from the name of the Umayyad Umayyad ie both of your grandfather `bin Abi Sufyan awiyah. He is one of the leaders of the tribes at the time of Ignorance pemimpinpemimpin. He and his uncle, Hashim is always competing for power and privilege in society. At the time of Ignorance, if a person has three elements in society, namely: derived from a noble family, has a richness, and the sons of honor, meaning it has to have a guarantee for the honor and power. When Islam came berobalah competition for power that the real animosity, the Umayyad dynasty is firmly opposed to the Messenger and his message. Instead of Hashim became a helper Apostle and his message, both those who had converted to Islam or even 12 yet.

As well as founder and first State of the Umayyad caliph Mu `is awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. He was born in Mecca five years before the Prophet was appointed as the Apostle 13. Dr. A. Syalabi said that Mu `awiyah born 15 years before the hijra, or about the year 607 AD 14. The lineage of Prophet Muhammad met with the grandfather of five, namely Abdi Manaf. The full pedigree is Mu `awiyah bin Abi Sufyan bin Harb bin Umayyad bin` Abdi
Shams bin `Abdi Manaf. His mother was Hind bint `Uthbah bin Rabi` ah ibn `Abdi Abdi Manaf Shams bin` 15.

At the time of the prophet he was appointed as one of the writing team of revelation. Then at the Abu Bakr became the chief aid to Yazid bin Abi Sufyan, Commander of the Syrians. Then at the time of `Umar became the Governor of Ardan (Jordan) and became Governor during the entire Sham` Uthman, which in the end he managed to appear to be the Caliph for 20 years 21.

After dibai `at a Khaleefah., He moved the center of his government to Damascus, Syrians. With the establishment of a new center of Islamic rule means bergeserlah center of Islamic rule from Medina to Damascus. Relocation of the capital is going through a long process, supported by a political strategy that was built by Mu `awiyah. And he merobah Khilafah system into a system of empire 22. There are several factors that support the objective for the system dirubahnya's deliberations.

A. Mu `awiyah managed to convince scholars, like Ibn` Abbas ibn `Umar, Sa` ad ibn Abi Waqash and other friends to show the results of that change.

2. If the system is maintained deliberation, will create opportunities for more war.

3. Competitive factors Bani Hashim and Bani Umayyad.

4. Every person without exception would want the glory and decent living for his family. Nepotism attitude could not be removed from a person. Surely what has been done by Mu `awiyah his family had been granted. He raised the family to serve in areas of authority. With a government dominated by the family, the government will make it strong enough and open opportunities for longer dominant.

5. Monarchy system of government is no better than a democracy (deliberation).

6. Increasing the extent of territory, the more many are people into the religion of Islam from the various regions, both regions are adjacent to the capital of the kingdom, and far away. It is very difficult for government staff to go to them and invite them deliberation. In addition, Muslims are not Arabs, but also non-Arabs and of course they want to elect leaders of their own. And if we consider, that all countries at that time shaped the kingdom. As Byzantium, Persia, and China, if the deliberation system is maintained, then Muslims will miss civilization 23.

I. Dynamics of Religious

For the privilege of the Umayyads in his time although his time was so short, but we see some movement in the realm of thought that does not have sufficient opportunities and the chance to be born in the days before or during the most fertile ground for the revolutions that occur in nature mind 24. We start from the Shiite thought. In the history and civilization of Islam talks about Shiite includes two kinds: first, about their beliefs and understanding, secondly, about the Shia movement to seize power 25. But that will be discussed first is about trust and about the Shi'ite movement seized power in the future will be discussed at the talks politik.Kaum Shiite supporters of Ali bin Abi Talib. Ali has had a supporter since the early stages after the death of the Prophet. Among them Abu Dhar al-Ghifari, Salman al-Farisi, Jabir bin Abdillah and Huzaifah bin al-Yaman. Once Abu Bakr was elected caliph
and Ali knows that defeat is because the class group Ansar immigrants cling to tradition the Prophet: al-Aimmatu min al-Quraishi (it is the leaders of the Quraysh).

Ali berfaham that is the relative affinity of this tradition is, that Ali once said: "They cling to a tree and forget the fruit". However, it is not intended by Abu Bakr and Umar. What they mean is the position and strength of the Quraysh. Besides, the behavior of Abu Bakr and Umar are very noble, they do not give the slightest opportunity to oppose the opinions to grow and expand. Then came the reign of `Uthman. He has taken an act of wrong that has not been done by previous khalifahkhalifah, plus the issue of provocation carried out by `Abdullah bin Saba, a Jew who claims to Islam, not for love but to attack Islam from within. It's easier for him than on attacking Islam openly 24.

With tenacity, `Abdullah bin Saba 'can master the Shiites and managed to form a compact unity, then he pumped a variety of opinion and philosophy into the realm of mind Shiite, so the problem is not just" tree fruit ", but he added a thought convoluted and raises doubts as well as creating a false history and tradition. Ditaburkannya the seeds of a misguided mind.

In addition, in the land of Persia before the advent of Islam prevailing theories that originated in Europe about the "sacred right of Kings" or also known as "al-Haq al-Divine" (Divine Right) that the royalty flow of blood to her divinity, only families that the right to rule. Persian nation then converted to Islam, while the theory remains embedded in their minds. Therefore, they argue that
Messenger family was the most eligible to hold the government 25. Between Shiite notions are typical:

A. Imamate, a term they use as a substitute for the term Caliphate. According to them Imamate is one of the pillars in between the pillars of religion and the angle is very important in Islam.

2. A priest must be a Ma'sum, which is a saint, maintained and preserved from committing sins great and small, and he must not make mistakes. All that comes from him, either in the form of speech or action, then it is haq d; 4N true.

3. Shiite groups agree that the Imamate is the property of their children and grandchildren Ali just 26.

Now let us see how the confidence and understanding of the Kharijites after we have seen how understanding and trust the Shiites against Ali and his descendants. Khawarij totally opposed to the Shiites. This group emerged in times of war Siffin when Ali and Mu'awiyah judge approved the appointment of two mediators to resolve disputes that occur between the two.

Actually, until then they were supporters of Sayyidina Ali, but then, suddenly, they turned back when the course tahkim, and said to the two keompok is: "You all have rejected the human memperhakimkan memperhakimkan God instead of you. " Some time later their views are so extreme and so out of line, until they kill and fight anyone who disagrees with them.

Therefore, for a very long time once they have aroused confusion everywhere and are more likely to kill and spill blood until they can
destroyed in the days of Bani Abbas 27. Dr. Hasan Ibrahim Hasan explains in his book Tarikh al-Islami, the Kharijites is the enemy of Mu'awiyah and Ali and his descendants. They justify the blood of Mu'awiyah and Ali and argued that they had come out of religion. Khawarij shows that democracy and Islam says that all Muslims belong to the Caliph as he is able to bear. There was no difference between the Quraysh and Quraysh not 28. Khawarij group is a very extreme opinion Azariqah, a group of Nafi 'ibn al-Azariq have mengkafirkan Ali and all Muslims. Nafi 'said: "Tidak.boleh eat their sacrifices, they should not marry, Ali and the Muslims than they are with the Arab infidels and pagans are the same, the State Mu'awiyah and Ali and his descendants is the Dar al-Harb (the mandatory State fight) and they also kill the children and wives of the Umayyads and Ali and his descendants who disagree with them, because they believed that their children were polytheists and eternally in Hell, a big sinner with His, the law cut hand for a good few people who steal and banyak29.

People interpret Surah Nuh Khawarij, verses 26-27 are lahiriyah only. This verse is used by Nafi 'ibn al-Zariq to legalize perbuatanya kill children and women, by saying the killing was lawful.

The core of their opinion are:

A. They recognize the legitimacy of the caliphate of Abu Bakr and Umar. As Usman, in their opinion on the recent kekhalifahannya has deviated from the truth and justice, so he should be killed or impeached. And that Sayyidina Ali, Mu'awiyah, `Amr bin Ash, Abu Musa al-Ash'ari and the followers of Ali and Mu'awiyah has done a great sin to mentahkim but Allah and also all those who participated in the battle Jamal, including Talhah, Zubair , Aisha Umm al Mumineen, has done a very great sin.

2. Sin, in their view, the same as disbelief. They mengkafirkan each commit major sins if he does not repent, and on this basis that they were openly mengkafirkan all the Prophet's companions. his name mentioned above.

3. Khilafah is not except in the presence of free elections between the mustimin and disagreed stating that the caliph must be from the tribe of Quraysh.

4. Obedience to the Caliph is obligatory for something that he's still in the way of justice and goodness. If he deviates, it must fight, or kill memakzulkannya 30.

In the State of the Umayyad period is also growing understanding Murjiah, and Jabariyah Mu'tazilah. Murji'ah sensible things were delayed, only God knows and God will reward you on the Day of Judgment 31. Jabariyah sensible that the perpetrators of major sins remain faithful 32. While Mu'tazilah sensible that those who committed major sins are not believers and unbelievers, but the wicked and the place between Paradise and Hell 33.

II. Socio-Political

In the social field during the Umayyad Caliphate is the nature of luxury as a result of the triumph in the political field. Meanwhile, Islamic values ​​sank by worldly values, despite all appearances to formal use of Islamic symbols. In addition, slavery was a common social phenomenon dikala it, especially among the nobles 34.

In the reign of the Umayyad this, there are many changes that are drastic. Ironically, this change will harm the social fabric of political and cultural order of society, especially in the government system. Arabization basis and postulate some of the Umayyad caliphs in the course of organizing and implementing the system of government. Arabization system strategy is applied in a discriminatory way. It is not in accordance with Islamic law and the spirit of brotherhood. This is the application of the Arabization of the population due to mixing of the conquered areas. They come to these areas feel conquests higher rank with a population of colonies derived from non-Arab 35. Arabization was strongly associated with mawali. Mawali are Muslim people who according to lineages not included in the Arab tribes. Such as the Persian, Turkish, Iraqi, and Egyptian. They were what is considered low by Arab tribes and are often treated with harsh and kejam36.

In the area of ​​expansion in the State of this region continues to grow. Although Muslim regions in the Khilafat al-Rashidun is so broad. But expansion has not reached the limit fixed, the Always there is some dissension and war. In such circumstances could not pass the battles between the Umayyads and the neighboring countries that have been conquered during the Khilafat al-Rashidun. And the battle continues until there is a limit which separates the two hostile armies. This is one of the main causes of the expansion, in addition to broadcast religious jihad and Islam 37.

Times suitable for conquest and expansion was the Caliph Mu'awiyah, and the last years of the Caliphate AM. al-Malik, his son and then at the AI-Walid. In addition to those days of conquest attempts to jam, as burdened with a variety of insurgency plus a lack of skill or caliph caliph caliph showed the aspiration to get the pleasure of Allah alone 38.

State of the expansion area at the time was divided into three Battle.

The first field; battle against the Romans in Asia Minor. Dipertempuran has been extended to cover the siege of the city of Constantinople and the attack on several islands in the Mediterranean. ak is undeniable that this battle is the battle that matters. For the State of the Umayyad capital of Damascus has made Islam and become the capital of the Kingdom of the Byzantine empire daengan nearby. So it is not surprising that the Umayyads tried hard to keep the Syrians border enemies and banish it.

When there is chaos, chaos in the country, pasukanpasukan Romanic regained a few areas in Armenia, which had been conquered by the Muslims 39. At the time of Caliph Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan continued regional expansion. Stalled expansion during Caliph Uthman and Ali by daulah was resumed.

At the time of Mu'awiyah, Tunisia can be conquered. In the east, Mu'awiyah can master the region down to the River Oxus Khurasan and Afghanistan to Kabul. Perform naval raids into the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Expansion to the East made by the Caliph Mu'awiyah followed He sent his army across the Oxus River and can be successfully meduduki Balkh, Bukhara, Khawarizm, Fergana and Samarkand. Troops in India and even to be able to control Baluchistan, Sind and the Punjab until Maltan 40.

After Mu'awiyah state of the country managed to overcome the situation, and she was getting slap to the face force with force. And he was enlarging his army so that totaled 1700 ships complete with food and a sword. Then he managed to fight the Mediterranean and 53-year master Rodes, Iqrithus (Crete) in 54, as he was also fighting Shigliyah islands (Sicily) and a small island called Arwad close to Constantinople and the islands Qibrus (Cyprus), which was mastered at the time of Uthman 41 .

Then Mu'awiyah prepare soldiers for combat both land and sea Constantinople led by Sufyan ibn Auf, and go with him Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Ibn Zubair and Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. They set out to Constantinople, then there was war, but the army suffered defeat Sufyan ibn Auf, because their ships on fire with their own burst of fire that fell and the battle Abu Ayyub died. And was buried near the fence of Constantinople 42. After Mu'awiyah's death, an attack on Constantinople stopped, which is then followed by the Caliph Abd assault. Caliph al-Malik and A1Walid. Onwards followed by Sulaiman ibn Abd. al-Malik and the capital of Byzantium fell the hands of the Muslims in 1453 AD under the leadership of Muhammad Al-Fatih sultan 43.

The second field; battle of North Africa to the Atlantic coast, then across the Strait of Jabal Tarik and get to Spain. But not discussed in this paper and will be discussed later by subsequent speakers.

The third field; East battle. This expanded and divided to two branches of one to the North-stricken areas Jihun River (Amu Darya). And the second branch to the south, covering an area of ​​Sind. Expansion of Islam had spread to the mountains to the south of the Caspian Sea and selanjutnva Jihun Muslims across the river (Amu Darya), and managed to control the lands across the river, Balk, Harah, Kabul, Ghaznah in Turkistan.

After Mu'awiyah died, the conquest was passed by Al-Walid and then complete at the time of Caliph Sulaiman ibn Abd. AI-Malik, under the leadership of Commander: Yazid bin Muhallab and came to the country's conquest of Sind 44.

Now let us look at the uprising in the country. The rebellion had occurred due to Mu'awiyah did not obey the contents of its agreement with Hasan ibn Ali when he ascended the throne, which states that the issue of replacement of the leader after Mu'awiya, submitted to the selection of the Muslims. Declaration of appointment of his son Yazid as the Crown Prince led to the emergence of opposition movements among the people which resulted in civil war several times and sustained 45.

When Yazid ascended the throne, then all the people both in keadaan.terpaksa membai'atnya Hussein bin Ali or tidak.Namun and Abdullah bin Zubair did not want membaiahnya, they fled to Mecca. In Mecca Husayn received several letters from residents of Kufa that essentially defending and promising bai'at against Hussein. Then Hussein sent his cousin, Muslim bin 'Aqil ibn Abi Talib, to find out whether their statements were true. Apparently what they said in the letter that was not true. They let the Muslims were killed in the country they were 46. Husien then went to Kufa, but do not know the whereabouts of his cousin. In the middle of the road somewhere in Karbela Hussein met with bin Sa'ad bin Abi Ilmar Waqash and the battle between them that resulted in the killing of Hussein bin Ali. Having killed and his body diinjakinjak with Horse and his head cut off, then dikirimlah head to Yazid in Damascus 47. After Hussein's death occurred more insurgency by the "Al-Tawwabun", ie "those who repent". They are of the Shia in Kufa who had been admitted a mistake, that they had invited Hussein to come into the land of them and then they distance themselves from it and eventually kill them. Therefore they repent and strive to avenge the death of Hussein. Al-Tawwabun insurgency can be defeated then during Caliph Marwan bin Hakam 48. Individual domestic insurgency Ta'if, al-Mukhtar bin Abi Ubaid 49.

Subsequent insurgency by Abdullah bin Zubair. After Husayn was killed, he proclaimed himself to be the Caliph and of rebellion against the Umayyad Daulah 50. SetelahYazid died and disintegrated Umayyads, came the opportunity for him to be a Caliph in Mecca. He began to build Mahligai glory under a pile of corpses of the victims who have died. He had never led an army out and just keep it in Makkah waiting bai'ah 51. At the time of Caliph, Abdullah ibn defeat and he was killed and his head sent to Abd. al-Malik and his body crucified 52.

On the other hand the cause of the rebellion took place because the policy of each caliph always carried out with an iron fist, and due to dissatisfaction with the policy of the Caliph who use violence, the emirate has declared some areas split off and be the opposition. One of the opposition movement made by Abbas, an uncle of Prophet Mohammad. On the pretext of want to restore the descendants of Ali to the throne of the caliphate, Abbas managed to attract the support of the Syi'ah53 the expense of resistance
against the Umayyad Caliphate. Abbas then start with a plot to murder the family to complete all the Caliph, who was held by the Caliph Marwan II Ibn Muhammad. Once the enormity of the murder, to call itself the blood diverter or as-Saffar. In the event that the heir to the throne of one of the Umayyad Caliphate Abdurrahman who was only 20 years old, managed to escape kedaratan Spain. Figure is then managed to regain the strength Ummaids across the ocean, the emirate Cordova. There he managed to restore the glory of the Caliphate Umayyad Caliphate of Andalusia with 54 names.

III. Intellectual progress

Lots of intellectual progress that occurred during this dynasty. Of which at the time of Caliph Mu'awiya has created new things that have not been there in previous years. He founded the postal service and certain places by providing a complete horse deangan equipment along the way, discipline the armed forces and print currency, Developing science inherited from the nations before the advent of Islam. `Umar ibn` Abd al-`Aziz (Medina, 63 H/682 H/720 AD-101 AD), during kekhalifahannya make policy in various fields. In the field of religion, he turned the teachings of the Koran and the Sunnah of the Prophet as `Umar ibn al-Khattab. Then apply the sharia law in a serious and systematic. Essential services in the field of religion and knowledge, which can be inherited Muslim men until now, is the initiative to hold a codification tradition that did not previously exist 55. At the time of Caliph `Abd. Al-Malik, he changed the Byzantine and Persian currencies and print its own money by using words and Arabic, in the year 659 AD And in the Al-Walid, he built asylums for people with disabilities. All personnel involved in these activities are paid by the state is fixed. And he also built a road connecting the highway with a region other areas, government buildings and the magnificent mosques 56. Mu'awiyah also merobah a democratic system of appointment of the Caliph `Ashabiyah and Taurits. It can be seen when Mu'awiyah to succession to his son Yazid57.Dibidang administration established state administrative agency called the Diwan al-Hattam, Mu'awiyah also to the police department, such as changes gadakan, named al-Syurthah, separating the administration of penal law procedures and non-criminal, raised a number of officials at the provincial and state income menanggungjawabi named shahib al-kharaj, increase state revenues through the income tax sector, then take some of these funds to benefit the poor, create fleets, as well as the guardian of the throne of the Caliph and, entering the Mihrab into a mosque 58. And impose Arabic as the official language administrasipemerintahanIslam59.

D. Conclusion

State of the Umayyad Umayyad name is derived from the grandfather of Mu'awiyah. As well as founder and first State of the Umayyad Caliph Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan was. He was the first time to exchange the Caliphate became the Kingdom of the appointment of the Head of State with Ashabiyah or Taurits. Intermediate position of Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan's hands not through direct consultation, as was done by the previous caliphs, but through a series of events that took the lives of many. Yazid's succession to the leadership to make a lot of controversy, so as to pass the uprisings that resulted in disruption of the stability of the country. The events that began in the last stage of Usman bin Affan government is judged by many to have deviated from the line determined by pendahulunya.dan is what makes State of the Umayyad and the downturn is finally broken in the hands of the rebels. But even so, many also perkembanganperkembangan intlektual that occurred during this Daulah. Such as, establish post offices and places specified by providing a complete horse equipment along the road, curb the armed forces and print currency.

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1 Keluarga-keluarga penghuni Kota Mekkah yang sampai saat-saat terakhir menunjukkan permusuhan dan perlawanan terhadap Nabi Saw dan Dakwah Islamiyah. Lihat Abul `Ala al-Maududi, Al-Khildfah wa al-Mulk, (terj.) Muhammad al-Baqir, Khilafah dan Kerajaan. (Bandung: Mizan, 1996) h. 139.

2 Ibid., h. 160-161

3 Yusuf al-Isy, Al-Daulah al-Umayyah. (Damaskus: Dar al-Fikr, 1994), h. 101

4 Abul `Ala al-Maududi, Al-Khilafah wa al-Mulk, (terj.) Muhammad al-Baqir, Khilafah dan Kerajaan, h. 173

5 Ibn Atsir, Al-Kamil fi a/-Tarikh. (Beirut: Dar al-Ashwar, 1965), h. 108

6 Abul `Ala al-Maududi, Al-Khilafah wa al-Mulk, (terj.) Muhammad al-Baqir, Khilafah dan Kerajaan, h. 178-181

7 Abdul Rahman bin Muljim salah satu dari tiga orang khawarij yang sepakat untuk membunuh tiga orang yang bersengketa dalam tahkim yaitu Ali, Muawiyah, dan Amr bin Ash. Ibnu Muljim berangkat ke kufah untuk membunuh Ali, al-Barak bin Abdillah al-Tamimi ke Syam untuk membunuh Mu'awiyah, dan Amr bin Bakar al-Tamimi ke Mesir untuk membunuh Amr bin Ash. Lihat Khudhari Bek, Itmdm al- Wajr' fi Sirdh al-Khulafa'. (Surabaya : Syirkah Bungkul Indah, tt), h. 247

8 Ibid., H. 257

9A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tdrikh al-Island wa al-Hadharah al-Islamiyah, ( Mesir: Maktab alNahdhah, 1978), h. 35

10 Ibid., h. 36

11 Abul `Ala al-Maududi, AI-Khilafah wa al-Mulk, (terj.) Muhammad al-Baqir, Khilafah dan Kerajaan, h. 188

12 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-Isldmi wa al-Hadharah al-lslamiydh, h. 29

13 Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tarikh al-Isldmi al-Siyasi wa al-Dini wa al-Tsaqafr wa al-/jtimd'i. (Mesir: Maktab al-Nahdhah, 1979), h. 282

14 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadhdrah al-lslamiydh., h. 33

15 Ibid., 30

21 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadharah al-Islamiyah, h. 33. Lihat juga Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tarikh al-/sldmi al-Siyasi wa al-Dini wa al-Tsaqar wa al-/jtima'i, h. 289

22 Ensiklopedi Tematis, Dunia Islam, Akar dan Awal, PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, h. 274.

23 Munawir Sazali, Isalam dan Tata Negara, Cet. I (Jakarta: Penerbit, UI-Press, 1990), h. 35

24 Ahmad bin Yusuf al-Qormani, Akhbar al-Duali wa Atsar al-Awwal fi al-Tarikh, jilid 2. (Beirut: Alam al-Kutub, 1610), h. 8. Lihat juga MA Shaban, Islamic History, terj. Machnun Husin, Se jarah Islam. (Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada, 1993), h. 113

25 Jurji Zaidan, History qf /slamic Civilization (New Delhi: Kitab Bhavan, 1981), h. 62

26 A.Syalabi Mausit'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadharah al-Islamiyah, h. 33

27 K. Ali, A Studi of /slam History. (Delhi, India: Idarah-i Adab iyat-i), h. 156

28 Jalal al-Din al-Suyuthi, Tarikh al-Khulafa'. (Bairut: Dar al-Fikr, 1974), h. 181

29 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tdrikh al-/slami wa al-Hadharah al-Islamiydh, h. 143 23 Ibid., h.

30 Abul `Ala al-Maududi, Al-Khildfah wa al-MzOk, (terj.) Muhammad al-Baqir, Khilafah dan Kerajaan, h. 275-277

31 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadharah al-lslamiydh, h. 281

32 Ibid., h. 282

33 Ibid., h. 287

34 Abu Su'ud, ISLAMOGOGl " Sejarah,Ajaran dan peranannya dalam Peradaban Umat Manusia, Cet. Pertama. (Jakarta :PT. Rineka Cipta, 2003),h. 34

35 Khuda Baksh, Politik in Islam, (Delhi: Idarah al Adabiyah, 1981), h. 101

36 Reuben levy, The Social Structure of Islam, terj. A. Ludjito, Susunan Masyarakat Islam (Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1986), h. 61-64

37 A.Syalabi Mausar'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadharah al-Islamiyah, h. 111

38 Ibid., h. 112

39 Ibid., h. 113

40 Badri Yatim, Sejarah Peradaban Islam (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2000),h. 43

41 A.Syalabi Mazasu'ah al-Tarikh al-lslami wa al-Hadhdrah al-Islamiyah., h. 113-114. Lihat juga Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tarikh al-lslami al-Siyasi wa al-Dini wa al-Tsaqafi wa al-Ijtimd'i, h. 284

42 Ibid., h. 285

43 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tdrikh al-/slami wa al-Hadhdrah al-/slamiyah., h. 117

44 Ibid., h. 132 - 134

45 Badri Yatim, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, h. 45

46 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-lslami wa al-Hadhdrah al-Islamiyah, h. 193-194

47 Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tdrikh al-Isldmi al-Siydsi wa al-Dini wa al-Tsaqdfi wa al-Ijtima'i, h 408

48 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tartkh al-Isldmi wa al-Hadharah al-lslamiyah, h. 207-209

49 AI-Mukhtar ibnu Abi Ubaid adalah keponakan Sa'ad ibnu Mas'ud yang menjadi gubernur pada masa khalifah Ali di daerah Madain dan juga pada masa Husein bin Ali. Kepribadiannya selalu goyang dan gelisah. Dia senantiasa berusaha untuk memperoleh pangkat dan harta dengan cara apapun. Lalu dia bergabung dengan Abdullah bin Zubair untuk melakukan pemberontakan terhadap Daulah Umayyah. Setelah tidak berhasil mendapat apa yang diinginkannya, ia lalu bergabung dengan penduduk Kufah yang disebut dengan Al-Tawwabun dan melakukan pemberontakan bersama mereka dan akibat kesalahan yang dilakukannya. Di antaranya, semakin tampaknya kebatilan dan kesesatan yang dilakukannnya. Kesalahan yang lain adalah banyaknya darah yang telah dialirkannya di Kufah untuk mencapai kejayaannya, maka penduduk Kufah meninggalkannya, hingga ia bertempur sendirian dan pada akhirnya ia tewas dijalan raya Kufah. Ibid., h. 210-213

50 Ibid., h. 207

51 Ibid., h. 224

52 Ibid., h. 231

53 Akan tetapi walaupun pada akhirnya Daulah Umayyah itu roboh karena perjuangan kaum Syi'ah untuk mendirikan Daulah `Alawiyah, namun hasil perjuangan tersebut jatuh ketangan Abbas, dan tidak dapat dinikmati oleh kaum `Alawiyyin. Lihat A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-lslami wa alHadhdrah al-lslamiyah, h. 144

54 Abu Su'ud, lslamologl " Se jarah,Ajaran dan per-anannya dalam Peradaban Umat Manusia, h. 35

55 John L. Esposito, Ensiklopedi Oxford, Dunia Islam Modern, Cet. II (Bandung: Penerbit Mizan, 2002), h. 18

56 Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tarikh al-Islami al-Siyasi wa al-Dini wa al-Tsaqafc wa al-/jtimd'i., h. 289

57 A.Syalabi Mausu'ah al-Tarikh al-Islami wa al-Hadhdrah al-lslamiyah, h. 33

58 Badri Yatim, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, h. 44-45

59 Muhammad Zuhaili, Marja' Ulum al-Isldmiyah. (Mesir :Dar al-Ma'arif, 1997), h. 49 59 Ibid., h.44

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