Friday, May 11, 2012

Paper of secularism

One of the culture of mankind that we will meet throughout the hemisphere are religious. Religion is one of the most important element of human culture builder. Religion here is that all human belief is institutionalized and influential in the life, religion is usually symbolized by religious rituals. Why do people always tend to adopt a religion, try to be explained by a sociologist in the theory of the origin of religion Asul. According to them the power beyond human ability to believe (religion) is a natural human instinct. The origins of this religion will be presented more clearly in one of the discussion in this paper. The next religion will always change, both in system and public confidence in the symbol, conduct community. These changes occur so that a trust could be more accepted by society adherents of his day. This means that religion evolved to be more adaptatif, the evolution is done consciously or unconsciously by the devotees, to be able to adjust to the times of his life a religion.

Religion in our stage of evolution for the five stages according to the division by most historians, and because of significant changes and seen so much in religion. One day in question is the modern era. In modern times religion has changed a lot of forms, symbols in prehistoric times and ancient (archaic). One character is dualistic in the emergence of religion, which the world and the next life balance, even the life of the world received greater attention by the adherents of the religion. Dualistic and secularism is actually the same thing, namely the separation of two things, the life of the world and the hereafter, and world religions.

Is it modernization and how the fate of religion in this day and age, how secularism began embraced by most adherents of religion, secularism and whether it carries a significant influence in religion is the problem we are trying to describe in this paper.

B. Origins of Religion 

To better understand the development of religion until it reaches the stage of modern times we need to briefly describe how religion began to be a belief system that is so institutionalized society.

Whether religion will always appear in public?, The sociologist will answer affirmatif, because religion is a natural human tendency. Mustofo Habib added that religion also appears when people feel vulnerable when faced with something. [1] But what about the instinct that arises is an interesting thing to try is described by sociologists as Dadang Kahmad in the theory of the origin agmanya.

 A. Soul Theory.

At first humans to see the things around him to believe that nature is not only inhabited by the material as they see and feel. Next they began to believe in the existence of jinn, or spirits who inhabit the earth.

Their assumption that the spirit or soul (immateri) is eternal and has more power than the power of man who can keep mengancurkan human life or result in the belief that it is worthy of worship. In other words, by believing in the existence of a supernatural will bring up religion in the society. [2] Religion at that time berpungsi as a savior and guardian of life. [3]

2. Common Boundary Theory

Human reason can not explain all the symptoms that occur on Earth, humans are accustomed to memnggunakan sense in solving all problems in their lives. Although the human mind has always evolved along with the times and technology but still there are things that will not be solved and answered by reason. Due to limited human reason.

Therefore, people want something that can solve and explain things that can not be explained by reason, in this case the man was at first believed magic as something that could menetupi sense weakness, but then they came to a much more complete and complex than the magic that is religion.

3. Crisis Theory in Life

Serenity in life is very very urgent human survival. This peace will be sought for man's life. When things happen that are beyond human desires like a calamity that can include death, loss, natural disasters this tranquility disturbed. Humans tried to calm myself with various things. There are things that can not be paid and be circumvented by other materials such as death and, until humans want something to soothe the soul is spiritual and it is a religion.

4. Theory of Public Sentiment

Society is a group of men who live together and have similar goals. Trust one person will not be recognized as a religion by the Sociology as one of the requirements is the institutionalization of religion.

So this theory argue that religion is the result of a sense of community. Further that religion was not arises from the belief in the supernatural, but only as a sense of unity as a community.

5. Extraordinary Power of

Before the humans believe in the power of forces that produce the phenomena they see as an extraordinary thing, people believe that the phenomenon itself that is a god, that man has to believe before preanimisme animism.  But sooner or later they end up believing that there is a tremendous force which produces the phenomenon.

6. Rev Theory

Religion is the revelation of God is one of the most widely embraced religion by the inhabitants of the earth, the religion as it is usually called a divine religion.

God's revelation was delivered by messenger and other religions that part conveyed even by God Himself in human form, known in Islam the Prophet Muhammad, known in the Christian religion of Jesus, Gautama Sidarta in Buddhism.

C. Modern and Secular

Religion and modernization is a very interesting problem in sociology. Most of them argued that modernization has changed the outlook of the religious man.

A. Modern and Modernization

The term refers to the modern meaning "now". [4] Meanwhile, according to royal Koentjoro that modernization is a conscious effort made by an institution or country to adjust to the state of the world and his contemporaries. [5]

In general, in the modern sense of the people covered by certain characteristics which subsequently developed into one academic term. The term is taken from modern English. The modern word has become so familiar after mid-century, from aufklarung, reneisans reaching a peak at 19 and 21 century.

 After that comes a so-called schools of modernism, the movement of thought which brought great influence to people's lives and their view of religion. Modernism first appeared in Europe, this ideology to undermine habits of absolute religious truth held by the church. Dichotomy that they can be regarded as dualistisme stretcher or secularism in the simple sense.  One characteristic of modern society on the stage is anthropocentrism, the notion that religion is only useful when there pragmatiknya usability.

But after all that modern, modernism is the continuation and effect earlier era (pre-modern), language, symbol, along with scientific findings. This means that the emergence of modernism that changed man's outlook on religion is due before the public religious behavior. Because modern is a logical continuation of the history then it certainly can not be avoided, because sooner or later it will appear modernity of this hemisphere. [6]

2. Understanding Secular, Secularisation and Secularism

secular word comes from the European continent. [7] in Indonesian Secular means worldly and material. [8] The word secular was adopted from the Latin language seaculum, which originally means a period or generation, this word originally meant ordinary people rather than the clergy. [9]

While the secularization means penduniawian process, namely the release of the flesh of religious control, meaning thereby the release of religious secularization. [10] As a result, the behavior will decrease one's religiosity and his behavior may impact on other areas will increase.

While the ideology of secularism is a result of secularization. One who experiences it will embrace secularization ideology of secularism. Secularism is a worldly ideology, even the denial of life after life in the world. [11] In Britain encyclopedias mentioned that secularism is a social ideology that aims to turn people away from the life hereafter and exclusively oriented to the life of the world. [12]

3. The birth process of secularization.

Secularism is derived from historical experience of Europe. This means the gradual separation in almost all aspects of life and thoughts of the clergy association. This was developed in England in the 16th century. [13]

The historical experience of Europe's varied life Along with the process of secularization intesifikasi religious life. Secularization is a long process. Secularization paradigm is not simple. A sociologist Steve Bruce in his Good Is Dead: Secularization in West explained that the secularization of the Protestant reformation began. [14]

Sociologists examine the relationship between religion and social change. Some argue that religion is a social peubahan inhibitors, because It is religion society accepts with resignation the fate that befell them and are not motivated to change their lives. But there are also opposing this opinion, who believe that religious society is a society that wants revolutionary social change.

In many communities, social change is usually accompanied by the emergence of secularism. Secularism in this case means the process by which religion loses its power to control people, or the process by which the public attention devoted to the worldly life and spiritual life left.

Many reasons that support the emergence of these changes such as science, technology, improvement of living standards and so forth.
D. Secularism: Religious Characteristic In the Modern Age.

religious character of this phase is the disappearance of pen-strukturan world and the hereafter, though schools of dualism still exists but with a new meaning to the world that it can not be separated completely, safety can not be achieved by withdrawing from the world. Even this phase of the community in trying to balance between the two.

This phase of religious symbols centered on the direct relationship between the individual and transcendental reality, such beliefs are dressed for the salvation of the world and the hereafter.

 Then act on this phase encompasses all of life, of course, this will be because the decline of some particular religious practice. And instead is the worship of God in every moment of life. The emphasis on a person's internal beliefs and ignore certain acts or practices.  One characteristic of religion in the modern phase is the emergence of secularism, [15] Secularism is the ideology that embraces keduniawaian or material, [16] is also a process to break away from religious control. [17]

The desire to balance the life of the world and the afterlife is a logical effort to develop the community. This ideology may be the result of the previous schools that are majority said that to reach the world of the afterlife, life must be abandoned.

Secularism in the modern phase of this major characteristic of many things, including religion. Several other areas also affected sekulasisasi than religion, such as science, mysticism and others. Fazlurrahman said that on the 18 th century AD in the world of science has undergone a secularization of Islam, namely the sharing of knowledge of religion and science. [18]

So also with the rise of neo Sufism Sufism, this doctrine assumes that the ascetic who was introduced by the classical tasawwuf can no longer follow this age of neo-Sufism that ascetic teachings make an effort to draw closer to God without leaving kehidupa worldly. This teaching is to strike a balance between life world and the next, until it is feared will happen this inequality in two respects.

Duan desire to balance the elements of the builder of this community life is actually a good thing and good. But the development was going limp and not as expected. When jehidupan Bergama was really ditingalkan or given less attention than the life hereafter.

Religious leaders are not really needed in this situation it is considered a religious life dakeranakan personal life that is maintained by each personal religion.  Religion and modernization is a very interesting problem in sociology. Most of them argued that modernization has changed the outlook of the religious man.

 That religion is growing tendency to decline dualism arises, the falling value of the afterlife. People are more interested in world activity and does not depend on religious scholars to seek the truth. What happened to see such a huge change in society's view of religion?, What happens is secularization, but how secularization proceeds further research is necessary because the process of secularization is not the same in every society.

Indonesian religious communities recognize secularism as the transformation of things from life and European culture. Either through contiguity or culture because communication is so sophisticated.

There is an assumption that secularism is there are things that are not worthy to be admitted in a religious society. Indeed, if we look in general, including secular masyaraklt Indonesia, we would conclude sekulrisme was always accompanied by moral decadence.

But also the notion that secularism as a bad thing but not with secularization. It is necessary we take very carefully. Secularism is understood, while secularization is a process. However, is the process of secularization as a process towards secularism, and how can we possibly say that secularization as being allowed but secularism is a bad thing.

The presumption of permissibility is left of the term secularization secularization secularization without secularism it is, or penduniawian process without understanding the world in other words are corrected and limited secularism. If such a point and then we need to find a new term for the secularization corrected it, so that we can believe one hundred percent that of secularism. Secularization, and secular, on all that concerns him is the thing to be opposed to the preservation of religion.

 If it is the secular world is a balancing life and the afterlife, while that happened was not the case, then there must be also a new term for these schools. Such understanding is also supported by religion. So religion has menalami secularization of religion in modern times with its evolution has found a form of religion is quite different from the previous period. Dualistic that developed before the modern period has been developed and strengthened to become secular.

Modern times is always accompanied with the schools of this sekualrisme. Not only in science, culture and even in religion.
 E. Close
Modern era and the modernization of the stages of the evolution of religion has resulted in schools that changed people's views on religion, where the desire for the Hereafter menyeimabangkan world and life has been turned into a relic of the afterlife and the meaning of religious life in the pre-modern phase. In other words dualistic has turned into secularism.

Secularism is the result of a process of secularization has been the hallmark of modern society, both in scientific and religious world. Secularization and secularism are not well regarded by the normative religion, not only because the place is a relic of the religious rituals that actually required but also the impact brought by the secularism that is moral decadence.

There is a desire to understand and re-emergence of religious life in the spirit of post-modern phase. But by looking more closely it turns out that possibility is very small, even the authors hypothesized that happens then is not the spirit of diversity which appears but a doctrine or ideology of secularism is patterned after the more powerful secular.

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References and Footnote
Bibliography 
  • Armstrong, Karen, History of the Lord. New York: Mizan, 2001.
  •  Arkoun, M., Islam, modernity. New York: Paramadina, 1998.
  •  Capps, Walter H., Religious Studies in The Making Of Disciplin, Fortress Press, 1995.
  •  Department of Education, Big Indonesian Dictionary. Jakarta: Central library, 2001.
  •  Esposito, John.L., Oxford Encyclopedia of 5, trans Yudian. New York: Mizan, 2002.
  •  Fattah, Rohadi Abdul, Sociology of Religion. London: Independent Golden Titian, 2004.
  •  Fazlurrahman, Islam and Modernity, trans Ahsin Muhammad. New York: Library, 1999.
  •  Garna, Judistira. K., Anthropology of Religion. New York: tp 1997.
  •  Hosbwan, EJ, The Age of Revolution 1889-1948. New York, 1982.
  •  Koentjoro Mentalitik Patrician Culture and Development, Scholastic, London, 1976.
  •  Majid, Nurcholish, Islam, Modernity, and Indonesian-ness. London, Mizan, 1998
  •  Mustofo, M. Habib., Set Essay of Man and Culture. New York: National Enterprises, 1988.
  •  Nasution, Aaron, Rational Islam. New York: Mizan, 1995.
  •  Odea, Thomas F., Sociology of Religion. New York: Eagle Press, 1992.
  •  Pye, Lucian W., Aspect of Political Develovment. Boston: Little Brown, 1965.
  •  Robertson, Roland, Analysis and Interpretation of Religion in Social. New York: Eagle Press, 1998.
  •  Schools, IJW, Modernization: Introduction to the Sociology of Developing Countries Development, trans Sokadijo. New York: Scholastic, 1991.
  •  Yunus, Mahmud al-Adyan. Semarang: Toha Son, 1987.
  •  Yusuf Qaradawi, Secular Extreme, trans Nuhani, Al-Kauthar Library, London, 2000.
Footnote
[1] M.Habib.Mustofo, set Essay of Man and Culture, National Business, London, 1988. page 59.

[2] Karen Armstrong, History of God, Mizan, London, 2001. case 29.

[3] Rohadi Abdul Fattah, Sociology of Religion, Titian golden Mandiri, Jakarta, 2004. case 89.

[4] Judistira.K.Garna, Anthropology of Religion, tp London, 1997. Page 4.

[5] Koentjoro Mentalitik Patrician Culture and Development, Scholastic, London, 1976. Case

[6] Lucian W.Pye, Aspect of Political Develovment, Little Brown, Boston, 1965. page 8.

[7] Nurcholish Majid, Islam, Modernity And keindonesiaan, Mizan, London, 1998. Page 216.

[8] Department of Education, the Great Dictionary of Indonesian, Central library, Jakarta, 2001. case 310.

[9] John.L.Esposito, Oxford Encyclopedia of 5, trans Yudian, Mizan, London, 2002. case 128.

[10] Harun Nasution, Rational Islam, Mizan London, 1995. It 188.

[11] Nurcholish, op, cit.

[12] Yusuf Qaradawi, Secular Extreme, trans Nuhani, Al-Kauthar Library, London, 2000. Page 2.

[13] M. Arkoun, Islamic modernity, Paramadina, Jakarta, 1998. case 78.

[14] EJHosbwan, The Age of Revolution 1889-1948, New York, 1982. case 272.

[15] IJWSchools, Modernization: Introduction to the Sociology of Developing Countries Development, trans Sokadijo, Scholastic, London, 1991. Page 1.

[16] Nurcholish Majid, Islam, Modernity And keindonesiaan, Mizan, London, 1998. Page 216.

[17] Harun Nasution, Rational Islam, Mizan London, 1995. It 188.

[18] Fazlurrahman, Islam and Modernity, trans Ahsin Muhammad, Library, New York, 1999. case 50.

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