Thursday, May 17, 2012

MUGHAL|DYNASTY IN|INDIA|(932-1274 AH / 1526-1858 AD)

Mughal Dynasty is a continuation of the sultanate of Delhi, it is characterized by peaks in the long struggle to form a dynasty in India are converging, which is an attempt to form an Islamic culture that is based on a synthesis between the Persians and the nation's heritage of India. Zahiruddin Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (1526-1530 AD) after he had conquered ruler Ibrahim Lodi dynasty of Delhi in India. The heyday of the Mughal dynasty began in the reign of Akbar Khan. (1556-1605 AD). Akbar succeeded in achieving political stability of the system of government because the diterapkannnya capable of bringing the Mughal dynasty in progress in economics, agriculture, commerce, and others. This golden age is still able to hold up to three generations of his successors, which Jahangir, Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb. At the beginning of the 18th century, the Mughal dynasty began to enter a period of decline. Civil war to seize power is one factor that led to the destruction of the dynasty in 1858.

B. Before the establishment of the Islamic dynasties of Mughal Dynasty

The entry of Islam into India through trade in the days of Prophet Muhammad SAW, which at that time India has had a number of ports, so that there is interaction between India and the Prophet SAW. Therefore, trade and missionary activities together in one so that the King Kadangalur, Cheraman Perumal, embraced Islam and changed his name to Tajuddin, and he had met the Prophet Muhammad SAW. At the time of Umar Ibn Khattab, under the leadership of the Islamic Mughirah again trying to dominate India's Sind region, but this attempt failed (634-644). Then in the days of Ibn Affan Ustman and Ali Ibn Abi Talib, sent a messenger to learn the customs and roads leading to India. [1] Later in the Umayyad period, ie during the Caliph al-Walid was performed in the expedition led by Muhammad Ibn Qasim and he successfully defeated him and became amir in Sind and Punjab, and in 871 AD the Arabs had become permanent residents there.

At the time of al-Ma'mun (caliphate dynasty of Bani abbots), was appointed to lead a number of amir areas. Among those believed to be the amir was Asad ibn Saman for Transoxiana region. He was appointed emir after Safari conquered dynasty, based in Khurasan.

Samani dynasty (874-999 AD) became amir Alptigin raised in Khurasan. Alptigin then replaced by his son, Isaac. Isaac coup by Balktigin, Balktigin replaced by Firri; and Firri dropped by Subuktigin. Subuktigin master Ghazna (an area of ​​Turkey in Afghanistan) and then set up Ghaznavids dynasty (963-1191 AD).

In the year 1001 AD, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavids had barged into the heart of the Indian subcontinent with the conquest of vast areas of Rajputana until the area around the bay Kambai Khatiawar and conquer the territories of Delhi and Kanauj to the bay of Bengal. [2] After Ghaznavids destroyed, then began to emerge some minor dynasty who controlled the country India, such as Guri Dynasty (1191 -1206 AD), the Delhi Mamluk dynasty (1206-1290 AD), Khalji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD), Tughluq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD), Sayyed Dynasty ( 1414-1451 AD), Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526 AD). [3]

C. The establishment of the Mughal dynasty in India

The word "Mughal" in Parsi is a call for the Mongols and Mongolia derivatives. Mughal dynasty (1256-1858 AD) is the largest Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent, which was founded by Babur Zahiruddin (1526-1530M), one of the grandson of Tamerlane. His father was Umar Mirza, the ruler of Ferghana, while his mother was a descendant of Genghis Khan. His reign included the India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Kashmir today. Babur of Ferghana region inherits her parents when she was 11 years old. [4] He was ambitious and determined to conquer Samarkhand the important cities of Central Asia at that time. At first he lost but it gets help from the Safavid king, Ismail I, Samarkhand he finally conquered in 1492 AD and 1504 AD Babur in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. [5]

After Kabul can be conquered, Babur continued its expansion into India which was ruled Ibrahim Lodi, who is going through a crisis, so the stability of the government into chaos. Alam Khan, uncle of Ibrahim Lodi, together Daulat Khan, the Governor of Lahore, sent an envoy to Kabul, he asked for help Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi. The request was immediately received. In the year 1525 AD, Babur managed to master the Punjab with its capital in Lahore. After that, he led his army towards Delhi. [6]

On 21 April 1526 AD there was a fierce battle between Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat and Zahiruddin Babur, the famous battle of Panipat I. Ibrahim Lodi was killed and his power to move into the hands of Babur, Mughal dynasty since that's standing in India, and Delhi made its capital. [7]

D. Development of the Mughal dynasty

The establishment of the Mughal dynasty led to unification of Hindu kings Rajputh (such as Rana Sanga) across India and develop a large army to attack the Babur. But the combined forces can be defeated Babur Hindu, while in Afghanistan there are still loyal to the family group Lodi. They lifted the little brother of Ibrahim Lodi, Mahmud became sultan. But Sultan Mahmud Lodi easily defeated Babur in the battle near Gogra in 1529 AD [8] In the year 1530 AD Babur died at the age of 48 years. He left a wide area of ​​power, then the government was held by his son Humayun.

In the reign of Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556 AD), the country was unstable because it faces many challenges and opposition from his enemies. [9] Among the challenges that arise are the rebellion Bahadur Shah, ruler of Gujarat which broke away from Delhi . [10]

In 1540 AD a battle with Sher Khan at Kanauj. Humayun defeated in this battle and fled to Kendahar and then to Persia. In this exile he developed his strength and he knows this is where Shiite tradition. Persia at that time led by the Safavid ruler named Tahmasp. After fifteen years of exile up power in Persia, he again attacked his enemies with the help of the king of Persia. Sher Khan defeated Humayun may after fifteen years of wandering to leave Delhi. He returned to India and occupied the Mughal throne in 1555 AD [11] In the year 1556 AD Humayun died and was succeeded by his son Akbar Khan.

Akbar Khan (1556-1605 AD), ascended the throne when he was 15 years old, so early in his reign, Akbar hand over affairs of state on Bairam Khan, a Shi'ite. Beginning of this period is characterized by various rebellions. Bairam Khan had to face the remnants of the rebellion are still descendants of Sher Khan came to power in Punjab. In addition to the rebellion that threatens the government's Akbar is a ruler Hemu Gwalior and Agra. Troops tried to enter the city of Delhi Hemu, Bairam Khan welcomed the uprising by deploying a large force. Fighting between the two is known as a battle of Panipat II, occurred in 1556 AD Bairam Khan's forces succeeded in winning this battle, so the area of ​​Agra and Gwalior can be fully controlled. [12]

After he tried to get rid of adult Akbar Bairam Khan who already have a very strong influence and the flow of Shiite interests too imposing. Bairam Khan tried to rebel, but his efforts can be defeated by Akbar in 1561 AD Jullandur year After the domestic problems can be overcome, Akbar began to expand. He had mastered Chundar, Ghond, Chritor, Ranthabar, Kalinjar, Gujarat, Surat, Bihar, Bengal, Kashmir, Orissa, Deccan, Gawilgarh, Narhala, Admadnagar, and Ashgar. [13]

Political stability that had been created by Akbar through a system of militarized governance support the achievement of progress in the fields of economy, science and civilization. Progress in the economic field is characterized by agricultural and industrial progress.

After Akbar, then the next ruler is Jahangir (1605-1628 AD), son of Akbar. Jahangir adherents Ahlussunnah wal worshipers. Jahangir's reign also saw the rebellion as a rebellion in Ambar is not able to put out. [14] The rebellion also emerged from the palace, led by the Kurram, his own son. With the help of the commander Muhabbat Khar, Jahangir Kurram arrested and imprisoned. But thanks to the efforts empress, hostility to the father and son reconciled.

Finally after Jahangir died, ascended the throne and title Kurram Shahabuddin Muhammad Muzaffar Shah Jehan Padshah Ghazi. Shah Jehan (1627-1658 AD), his reign marked by the onset of rebellion and strife among his own family. As of his mother, his sister Syahriar which established itself as the emperor in Lahore. But the rebellion can be completed properly. In the year 1657 AD, Shah Jehan fell ill and began to race arose among his children, because each wants to be emperor. In the fight, Aurangzeb emerged victorious having defeated his brothers Dara, Sujak, Murad. [15]

Aurangzeb was the last great Mughal emperor who ruled from the year 1658-1707 AD [16] He holds Alamgir Padshah Ghazi. He is a brave and wise ruler. Greatness parallel to Akbar, his predecessor. At the end of his reign he overran the Deccan, Bangla and Aud. Aurangzeb systems that run a lot different from its predecessor. Policies which were initiated by the previous kings of heavily modified, particularly with regard to relations with the Hindus. Mughal ruler Aurangzeb is the reverse policy of conciliation with Hindus. Among its policy is to prohibit liquor, gambling, prostitution and drug use (1659 M). In 1664 he also issued a decree that it should not be forcing women to satidaho, namely self-immolation of a widow who lost a husband, without the will is concerned. Eventually this practice was officially removed during the colonial era Britain. [17] Aurangzeb also banned musical performances at the palace, saddled with non-Muslim poll-tax, which taxes to get the right to vote (1668 AD), ordered the destruction of Hindu temples and sponsoring pengkodifikasian Islamic law, known as Fatawa Alamgiri. [18]

Aurangzeb on the action enraged the Hindus. This is what eventually led to rebellion in his time. However, due to very strong Aurangzeb, the rebellion was extinguished. Although the uprising was extinguished, but not entirely complete. This is evident when Aurangzeb died (1707 AD), many regions broke away from Mughal and Hindu uprising by the group.

After Aurangzeb's death (1707 AD), the Mughal dynasty was led by the sultans of the weak who can not maintain the existence of the Mughal empire. The Mughal rulers after Aurangzeb, among others: Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712 AD), Jihandar Shah (1712-1713 AD), Farruk Siyar (1713-1719 AD), Muhammad Shah (1719-1748 AD), Ahmad Shah ( 1748-1754 AD), Alamgir II (1754-1759 AD), Shah Alam (1759-1806 AD), Akbar II (1806-1837 AD), Bahadur Shah II (1837-1858 AD) [19]

E. Social Dynamics of Religious

Majority population in the Indian subcontinent are Hindus, Muslims are a minority group. Muslims are a minority, not all become part of the government elite. They do not form a single community but consists of various ethnic groups, nasab, and a number of classes of the population, even made up of several castes. As Hindus, Muslims are often identified by a group of family and job specialization groups, arranged in a hierarchy in which the highest position they are in the army of Afghanistan and Central Asia and the families of descendants of the prophet or the descendants of scholars' Iran and Arab. While the people whose jobs are craftsmen and workers occupy a lower position. [20]

India established a number of Muslim religious bodies under the fellowship of the schools of law, the Order Sufi sheikh and the fellowship of the doctrine, scholars, and individual trustee. Most of them are Sunni and Shi'ite majority, although it is not as absolute cutoff, due to strong sympathy to the family of Ali Sunni. Sunnis themselves divided into two groups, namely the first group are the scholars of law schools, and the Order, they are the people who run the kommitmen against Islam and Islam is pure good faith and conviction and the legal aspects revealed in the Qur'an, Hadith, and Shariah. The second category is the Sufi and his disciples who manages some shrine, and manage the Order which was established in his name where they tend to believe in miracles of saints, so that the worship of saints obscure the distinction between Muslims and Hindus; some mystic blend of theory and cosmology between the concept of Hindu and Muslim concepts. [21]

In the Mughal dynasty, growing Tariqat Naqshabandiyah, Qadiriyah, Tariqat Chistiyah. Akbar support the Order Chistiyah that tolerate some form of divine worship, called Din, or religious deity is a synthesis between Hinduism and Islam, where the king is seen as the great teacher of the order. Tariqat Chistiyah formed under the teacher's personal religious views of the founder and the personal service of the students. [22]

Muslims in the Indian subcontinent is also called preaching to the Indians who are Muslim. Citizens of India who converted to Islam, mostly from the lower classes of society. The elite Turkish troops and Afghanistan require less religious conversion among the nobility, because they fear will happen in the political power struggle.

In Bengal and the Punjab Muslim Hindu celebration also commemorates various, worship at Hindu sacred places, carry offerings to the Hindu gods and hold weddings in the pattern of Hindu tradition. Hindu citizens who converted to Islam while maintaining elements of their old beliefs and practices, many Hindus mengeramatkan Muslim saints without changing their religious identities.

This is an overview of the religious culture in the Mughal dynasty. Where the boundaries of Islam and Hinduism as more flexible than in the formal doctrine. Islam entered India in general society through assimilation and through certain forms assimilated into the indigenous culture.

Even quite successful in converting Hindus to Islam, but the majority remained Hindu India. [23]

F. Progress achieved in the period of Mughal Dynasty

A. Governance and Socio-Political

Mughal dynasty system of government is militaristic. The central government that are held by the sovereign dictator. Local governments are held by the commander or head of Sipah salar, while sub-districts held by faudjar (commander). Civilian positions are also put on the military level where officials were required to attend military exercises. [24]

Political system that stands out is "Sulakhul" or universal tolerance. adopted by Akbar. With this policy all the people of India is considered the same. Because they do not distinguish the ethnic and religious differences. In general politics "Sulakhul" succeeded in creating a harmonious society is very diverse Indian tribes and beliefs. Institution that is a product of the political system "Sulakhul" is the creation of Divine Din, [25] which makes all existing religions in India into one. The goal is in the interests of political stability. With the unification of religion is not expected to occur among religious hostility. To realize the teachings of Hindu princess Akbar married twice, berkhutbah using Hindu symbols, prohibits write the Arabic alphabet, do not require circumcision and forbids slaughtering or eating beef. [26] Another attempt mansabdharis Akbar was formed, namely the obligation of public service institutions prepare all the affairs of the kingdom, such as setting up a certain number of troops. [27] This institution is a ruling class composed of various ethnic groups, namely Turkish, Afghan, Persian and Hindu.

2. Economics and Finance

There is no any progress can be achieved by a government, without sustained by strong economic and financial. Therefore, the Mughal emperor really notice it. Therefore, it imposed a tax on land, customs and others. [28]

In addition Mughal contribution to the economy is to promote agriculture, especially farming for rice, beans, sugar, spices, tobacco and cotton. Government established to regulate the issue of agriculture. The smallest region called deh, deh, and some members of the Pargana (Kawedanan). Every community of farmers led by Mukaddam. Through this Mukaddam related to farmers' government. [29]

In addition to agriculture, the government is also promoting the weaving industry, which developed into a craft of weaving textile mills during Aurangzeb. The results of this industry are exported to many foreign countries like Europe, Arabia, Southeast Asia and others. Spices, opium, sugar, powdered sodium, wool, perfumes and other goods is also a production of the commodity exports of Mughal and Mughal increase financial resources. At the time of Jahangir, many foreign investors are permitted to invest, such as allowing the UK and the Netherlands set up agro-processing factories in Surat. [30]

2. The field of Intellectual Property (Education and Awareness)

Mughal dynasty also contributed in many areas of science. Since inception of this dynasty, many scientists who came to India to seek knowledge, even the Mughal palace was the center of cultural activities. This is because of support from the rulers and the nobility and clergy. Aurangeb for example, provide a large amount of money and land to build an educational center in Lucknow, Akbar also granting schools and libraries. [31].

In the Mughal period, every mosque has a basic level agency run by a teacher. At the time of Shah Jehan founded a college in Delhi. This number is increasing rapidly as the government held by Aurangzeb. In the field of religious knowledge successfully codified Islamic law, known as fitr be given? I Alamgiri. [32]

In addition to the above, many also built schools or madrassas in this period, along with schools of different patterns, either due to a different school or due to the specificity of science, as madrasah Rahimiyah Deobond with courses in basic interpretation, hadith and fiqh. In addition to the library was built as well as in Agra which in 1641 had 24 000 books. As a result of the many schools built, so many experts born intellectual, or authors like in politics, philosophy, traditions, Quran, Sufism, at-thib (medical science), mathematics, science wars, science engineering. [33]

Doctors are great authors in the 17th century Mughal India is a fabricated Shukuh Dara Dara Shukuh medicine, which is the last major medical encyclopedia of Islam. It is also known as a Sufi.

Islamic medical science continues to expand in India through the ages 12 H / 18 M, such as medical scales made by Muhammad Akbar Shah Arzani of Shiraz. With the presence of medical sciences India / Islam which is a medical science in the form of medical philosophy (using the approach to God) life to compete with modern medical science of Europe. [34] In addition to the many madrassas and ulema also born Mausu'at and Majmoo'at (Book collection various science and issues, such as encyclopedias).

4. The field of Architecture, Languages ​​and Literature

The results of Mughal art and architecture are well known and can be enjoyed until now. Prominent features of Mughal architecture is the use of marble carvings and embossed with a combination of colors. The building that shows this feature, among others: the red fort (is Qellah), palaces, royal tombs and the most amazing thing is the Taj Mahal in Agra. This palace is one of the seven wonders of the world built by Shah Jehan for his wife Momtaj Mahal is beautiful. Other buildings are patterned at the Grand Mosque of Delhi marble, a court in Lahore, in Sikri Sikri Fatpur palace, mosque Moti "Pearl Mosque" in Agra, which is made entirely of marble and carved the Qur'an in it by means of a black marble . [35]

Also prominent in literature. Many literary works composed from Persian to Indian languages. At the time of Akbar develop Urdu language, which is a blend of Persian and Hindi original. [36] language Urdu language ever used such knowledge in copy writing Ikhwanus Shofa into Urdu by Ali Ikrom. Urdu language was later widely used in India and Pakistan now. Mughal is the famous poet Malik Muhammad Jayashi, with Padmavat monimentalnya work, a work containing allegorical virtues of the human soul. Another poet Abu Fadl is also a historian. His work titled Akbar Name and Ain-I-Traditionists, analyzing the history of Mughal based leadership figures. [37]

G. The decline of the Mughal dynasty

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Mughal dynasty in India in the age decline. The successor of Aurangzeb no longer able to maintain power. Civil war to seize power in Delhi always the case. The successor of Aurangzeb could not maintain the greatness that has been fostered by previous sultans. In simple terms, the factors causing the decline of Mughal dynasty can be classified into two: internal factors and external factors.

a. Internal factors

A. Political problems Kingdom

1.1. Leadership Crisis

After the death of Aurangzeb, in the period of the next half century, there is no substitute that can maintain, let alone advance the Mughal dynasty that has reached its glory. In general they are weak and unable to resolve the problems faced.

In addition to the successor Aurangzeb were weak leadership, they also hit by the moral decadence and luxury living in the palace. For example, the increase in Jihandar Shah as sultan, who replaces Bahadur Shah therefore an active role Zulfikar Khan, son of Azad Khan, Aurangzeb former vizier, the sultan took easily dictated by wazirnya. [38]

Civil 1.2.Perang

The civil war has actually happened since the time of Jahangir, Akbar's successor, who reigned during 1605-1628 AD He was challenged by his brother, Khusraw the ambition to become king. Assisted by his uncle, Mansingh, Khusraw successfully develop strength in Punjab by cooperating with the Sikhs, led by Arjun teacher. Khusraw then attempt to seize Lahore, but can be thwarted by Jahangir, and imprisoned in Bhairawal Khusraw. [39]

Similarly, at the time of Shah Jehan ascended the throne replacing Jahangir, he must face his mother and sister Syahriar, although in the end he managed to complete this challenge.

This power struggle is also happening at the time of Shah Jehan was seriously ill in the year 1657 AD His son, Aurangzeb, Dara Shikeh, Shuja and Murad Bakhs civil war, which eventually won by Aurangzeb. [40]

After Aurangzeb died in the year 1707 AD, his son is named Mu'azzamlah who succeeded his father as king by the name of Bahadur Shah, after he defeated his brother and Kam Bakhs Azimah. [41]

In the past five years of Bahadur Shah's reign, the growing political turmoil, both from the palace and from the wider society. But the circumstances it can still be solved by Bahadur Shah. But after his death in 1712 AD, sons are involved in power struggles. Son of Bahadur Shah, Shah Azimus, has been named to succeed his father but was met with resistance from his brother. In this competition, General Zulfiqar Khan also plays an important role and his influence, the son of the weakest, Jihandar Shah was crowned as king. But Jihandar Shah was challenged by his nephew Farrukh Siyar Muhammad. In the battle that occurred in the year 1713 AD, Farrukh Siyar to win the war and to maintain his position until the year 1719 AD [42]

Disputes and power struggles that occurred among the royal family has led to decline of Mughal dynasty. Political instability has led to control of the weak areas, so one after the release loyalty to the central government. Besides the Hindu factions dare to break away from the Mughal rule.

2. Hindu movements

Some religious and cultural movements emerged to break the power of the kingdom. Hindu revivalist movement, which has a decisive character, growing rapidly in India. The movement is growing rapidly in India and often present themselves as a semi-Islamic movement.

Bhakti movement emerged in South India. His influence spread to North India. Although the Bhakti movement spearheaded by a number of figures (eg Kabir) that echoes the universal peace, and even borrowed some elements of Islam (eg monotheism) ahead of the 17th century, the movement turned into an anti-Islam movement.

Uprisings that threatened the existence of Mughal sovereignty does not only happen at the end of power, but at the time of Aurangzeb also had a coup by the Hindus. Sikh rebellion [43] led by the teacher Tegh Bahadur and Gobind Singh and then by the teacher. Uaipar Rajput rebellion and insurrection led by the Marathas led by Sivaji and Sambaji. [44]

After the death of Aurangzeb, the more intense insurgency. Bahadur Shah at that time held the reins of power are not able to hold the areas that seek to break away. Sikh groups under the leadership of Banda won Sadhaura town, north of Delhi, and then rob and kill people Sirhin Muslim city. In the year 1732 AD, Gujarat can be captured by the Marathas group led by Baji King [45]

Of the many ethnic and religious movements, the movement of the Marathas and the Sikhs played a major role in weakening of the Mughal. The pemipin them, Sivaji and teachers Gobin Singh, involve themselves personally to oppose the Mughals, as their predecessors were killed by Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb spent the whole time towards the end of his reign to the conquest of the Marathas in the South movement. However, these efforts remained futile.

b. External Factors
Expansion of Other Countries

Attacks from the Persian

Initial dispute between the Mughal dynasty and the Safavid Empire was Kendahar area. In the year 1622 AD, the area occupied by the Safavids. But in 1638 AD, Ali Mardan Khan, the governor at the time, gave to the Shah Jehan Kendahar in exchange for wealth and high rank. Shah Abbas (1642-1667 AD) of the Safavid empire retook Kendahar in the year 1649 AD Aurangzeb and the Mughal dynasty Sadullah Khan with an army of about 70,000 people failed to maintain Kendahar. In the year 1652 AD, Mughal dynasty tried to storm back Kendahar, but again failed. [46]

In the year AD 1739, Nadir Shah of the Safavid stormed the grounds that the ruling Mughal Mughal, Muhammad Shah, did not want to receive the ambassadors sent by Nadir Shah, and protecting the Afghan insurgency. Nadir Shah tried to control Kabul, Peshawar, and Lahore. The next invasion of Nadir Shah went to Delhi. Muhammad Shah tried to fight, but in vain due to an unbalanced force. After slaughtering the citizens of Delhi, Nadir Shah of Persia transporting property by allowing the king to the city of Delhi apart.

Nadir Shah's motive seems only to get the loot. Therefore, even if he has mastered Delhi, he was admitted Muhammad Shah as king of Delhi in return for tribute, with the defeat, Muhammad Shah had to pay tribute and must also submit the west of the river Indus to the Safavid [47]

1.2. Attacks from Afghanistan

In the reign of Muhammad Shah, the Mughal dynasty under attack from the North, led by Ahmad Shah Durrani al-al-Afghani. In the year 1748 AD, al-Durrani seized Lahore, which is then released back to the Alamgir II (1754-1759 AD). After mastering Lahore, he entered Delhi continues to Agra. In Delhi he left most of his army, led by Najibuddaulah. [48]

Deputy al-Durrani, Najibuddaulah, Alamgir attacked so Delhi. Agra, and Lahore can be taken back, but when al-Durrani knew it, he did attack back in 1761 AD, by no means met with resistance from the Mughal. After that, al-Durrani strengthen its influence in Lahore, Delhi, and Sihanipur, including determining the king who will rule in India. This lasted until the governing Shah Alam (1761-1806 AD). [49] Campaign Ahmad Shah Durrani al-giving material and moral blow to the Mughal dynasty. A landslide that hit the empire is never to rise again from destruction. [50]

2. UK Political-Economic Intervention

Mughal decline in the political and economic sectors used by the nations of Europe via trade routes. The arrival of the Europeans in India view of bringing new ideas, techniques and technologies surprising Mughal army was in weak condition. South coast of India in the trade rivalry between the Portuguese, Dutch, French and English. In the UK is superior competence.

Furthermore, in the year 1761 AD, Britain was given permission by the Shah Alam to settle in Bengal, East India, because of this Mughal king must submit and pay tribute to Afghanistan. Then open up trade unions The British East India Company (EIC) in order to master the source of commodities of India. [51]

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References and Footnote

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[1] Jaih Mubarok, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, ( Bandung : Bani Quraisyh, 2004), h. 136.

[2] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Tarikh Islam, Juz III, ( Kairo: al-Maktabat al-Mishriyyat, 1979), h. 92.

[3] Joesoef Sou'yb, Sejarah Daulat Abbasiyah III, ( Jakarta : Bulan Bintang, 1997), h. 77-80.

[4] Badri Yatim, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, ( Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada, 2000), h. 147

[5] Ibid.

[6] Siti Maryam, dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam ; Dari Masa Klasik Hingga modern, (Yogyakarta : LESFI, 2002), h. 184.

[7] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization In India, ( New York : Columbia University Press, 1965), h. 136

[8] Ajid Thohir, Perkembangan Peradaban di Kawasan Dunia Islam (Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada, 2004), h. 203.

[9] Hamka, Sejarah Umat Islam, ( Singapura : Pustaka Nasional PTE. LTD, 1994),h. 504

[10] Syed Mahmudunnasir, Islam ; Konsepsi dan Sejarahnya, ( Bandung : Rosdakarya, 1993), h. 265-266

[11] CE Bosworth, Dinasti-Dinasti Islam, terj. (Bandung : Mizan, 1993), h. 226

[12] K. Ali, Sejarah Islam ( Tarikh Pramodern), ( Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada, 1997), h. 354.

[13] M. Mujib, The Indian Muslim, ( London : George Alen, 1967), h. 254

[14] PM. Holt, dkk, The Cambridge History of Islam ( London : Cambridge University Press, 1970), h. 45

[15] Syed Mahmudunnasir, Islam ; Konsepsi dan Sejarahnya….h.277

[16] Harun Nasution, Islam ditinjau Dari Berbagai aspeknya, Jilid I, ( Jakarta : Universitas Indonesia, 1985),h. 85

[17] Siti Maryam, dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam ; Dari Masa Klasik Hingga modern,h. 186

[18] K. Ali, Sejarah Islam ( Tarikh Pramodern)……, h. 536.

[19] Siti Maryam, dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam ; Dari Masa Klasik Hingga modern…h. 186-187

[20] Ira. M. Lapidus, Sejarah Sosial Ummat Islam, jilid I & 2, ( Jakarta : Raja Grafindo Persada),h. 703.

[21] Ibid., h. 704

[22] Ibid., h. 703

[23] Ibid., h. 685.

[24] Ajid Thohir, Perkembangan Peradaban Islam, ….h. 205

[25] Ibid., h. 206

[26] SAA Rivzi, Religion and Intelectual History of Muslim in Akbar Reign ( New Delhi : Musgiran, Munoharlal, 1975), h. 376-377

[27] CE Bosworth, Dinasti-dinasti Islam…….h. 237

[28] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India,……h.214-215

[29] K. Ali, Sejarah Islam (Tarikh Pramodern),……h. 537

[30] Ibid.

[31] Siti Maryam, dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, Dari Masa Klasik Hingga Modern….h.. 188

[32] Ajid Thohir, Perkembangan Peradaban Islam….h. 211

[33] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India…..h. 241

[34] Musyrifah Sunanto, Sejarah Islam Klasik, Perkembangan Ilmu Pengetahuan Islam, (Jakarta : Kencana, 2003), h. 262

(Jakarta : Kencana, 2003), h. 262

[35] Harun Nasution, Islam ditinjau Dari Berbagai Aspeknya, Jilid I, …..h. 86

[36] Anwar Jundi, Tarikh al-Islam, Jilid II, ( Kairo : Dar al- Anshar, tt), h. 209

[37] Badri Yatim, Sejarah Peradaban Islam…..h.151

[38] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India……h. 255

[39] PM Holt,, The Cambridge History of Islam,…,h. 44-45

[40] Syed Mahmudunnasir, Islam: Konsepsi dan Sejarahnya, terj. Adang Afandi……h. 369-373

[41] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India,….h. 254

[42] Syed Mahmudunnasir, Islam : Konsepsi dan Sejarahnya….. h. 276-277

[43] Orang Sikh yang semula mengahut sinkretisme ajaran Hindu dan Islam, dalam perkembangannya lebih dipengaruhi oleh Hinduisme. Pada abad ke-18 dan awal abad ke-19 mereka memerintah banyak orang Muslim dengan kejam di India Utara.

[44] Harun Nasution, Islam Ditinjau dari Berbagai Aspeknya, …h. 87-88

[45] Harun Nasution, Pembaharuan dalam Islam : Sejarah, Pemikiran, dan Gerakan, (Jakarta : Bulan Bintang, 1975), h. 19-20

[46] Syed Mahmudunnasir, Islam : Konsepsi dan Sejarahnya….. h. 276-277

[47] SM Ikram, Muslim Civilization in India,….h. 254

[48] Abdul Mun'im, Tarikh al-Islam fi al-Hindi, ( Kairo : Dar al-'Ahd al-Jadid, 1959), h. 309-310

[49] Ibid.

[50] CE Bosworth, Dinasti-Dinasti Islam, terj….h. 227-238

[51] PM Holt. Et. Al., The Cambridge History of Islam….h. 76

[52] Siti Maryam, dkk, Sejarah Peradaban Islam, Dari Masa Klasik Hingga Modern….h..189

[53] Ibid.

[54] Ibid., h. 190

[55] Ibid.

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