Tuesday, May 29, 2012


Mughal Dynasty is a continuation of the sultanate of Delhi, it is characterized by peaks in the long struggle to form a dynasty in India are converging, which is an attempt to form an Islamic culture that is based on a synthesis between the Persians and the nation's heritage of India. Zahiruddin Mughal dynasty was founded by Babur (1526-1530 AD), after he had conquered ruler Ibrahim Lodi dynasty of Delhi in India.

The heyday of the Mughal dynasty began in the reign of Akbar Khan (1556-1605 AD). Akbar succeeded in achieving political stability of the system of government since the adoption of the Mughal dynasty could bring progress in economy, agriculture, trade and others. This golden age is still able to hold up to three generations of his successors, which Jahangir, Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Mughal dynasty began to enter a period of decline. Civil war to seize power is one factor that led to the destruction of the dynasty in 1858.

B. The establishment of the Mughal dynasty

The word "Mughal" in Parsi is a call for the Mongols and Mongolia derivatives. Mughal dynasty (1256-1858 AD) is the largest Islamic rule in the Indian subcontinent, which was founded by Zahiruddin Babur (1526-1530 AD), one of the grandson of Tamerlane. His father was Umar Mirza, the ruler of Ferghana, while the mother is kerturunan Genghis Khan. Its control area covering India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Kashmir today. Babur of Ferghana region inherits her parents when she was 11 years old. [1] He was ambitious and determined to conquer Samarkhand the important cities of Central Asia at that time. At first he lost but it gets help from the Safavid king, Ismail I, he finally managed to conquer Samarkhand in 1492 AD and 1504 AD Babur in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. [2]

After Kabul can be conquered, to continue its expansion into India Babur who was ordered Ibrahim Lodi who are experiencing a crisis, so the stability of the government into chaos. Alam Khan, uncle of Ibrahim Lodi, together Daulat Khan, the Governor of Lahore, sent an envoy to Kabul, he asked for help Babur to overthrow Ibrahim Lodi at Delhi. The request was immediately received. In the year 1525 AD, Babur managed to master the Punjab with its capital in Lahore. After that, he led his army towards Delhi. [3]

On 21 April 1526 AD there was a fierce battle between Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat Babur and Zahiruddin famous battle of Panipat I. Ibrahim Lodi was killed and his power to move into the hands of Babur. Since then stood Mughal dynasty in India, and Delhi made its capital. [4]

C. Development of the Mughal dynasty

The establishment of the Mughal dynasty led to unification of Hindu kings Rajputh (such as Rana Sanga) across India and develop a large army to attack the Babur. But the combined forces can be defeated Babur Hindu, while in Afghanistan there are still loyal to the family group Lodi. They lifted the little brother of Ibrahim Lodi, Mahmud became sultan .. But Sultan Mahmud Lodi easily defeated Babur in the battle near Gogra in 1529 AD [5]

In the year 1530 AD Babur died at the age of 48 years. He left a wide area of ​​power, then the government was held by his son Humayun.

In the reign of Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556 AD), the country was unstable because it faces many challenges and opposition from his enemies. [6] Among the challenges that arise are the rebellion Bahadur Shah, ruler of Gujarat which broke away from Delhi [7].

In 1540 AD a battle with Sher Khan at Kanauj. Humayun defeated in this battle and fled to Kendahar and then to Persia. In this exile he developed his strength and he knows this is where Shiite tradition. At that time the Persians led by the Safavid ruler named Tahmasp. After fifteen years of exile up power in Persia, he again attacked his enemies with the help of the king of Persia. Sher Khan defeated Humayun may after fifteen years of wandering to leave Delhi. He returned to India and occupied the throne in 1555 AD Muhghal [8] In the year 1556 AD Humayun died and was succeeded by his son Akbar Khan.

Akbar Khan (1556-1605 AD), ascended the throne when he was 15 years old, so early in his reign, Akbar hand over affairs of state on Bairam Khan, a Shi'ite. Beginning of this period is characterized by various rebellions. Bairam Khan had to face the remnants of the rebellion are still descendants of Sher Khan came to power in Punjab. In addition to the rebellion that threatens the government's Akbar is a ruler Hemu Gwalior and Agra.

Troops tried to enter the city of Delhi Hemu, Bairam Khan welcomed the uprising by deploying a large force. Fighting between the two is known as the battle of Panipat II, occurred in 1556 AD Bairam Khan's forces succeeded in winning this battle, so the area of ​​Agra and Gwalior can be fully controlled. [9]

After he tried to get rid of adult Akbar Bairam Khan who already have a very strong influence and the flow of Shiite interests too imposing. Bairam Khan tried to rebel, but his efforts can be defeated by Akbar in 1561 AD Jullandur year After the domestic problems can be overcome, Akbar began to expand. He had mastered Chundar, Ghond, Chritor, Ranthabar, Kalinjar, Gujarat, Surat, Bihar, Bengal, Kashmir, Orissa, Deccan, Gawilgarh, Narhala, Admadnagar and Ashgar. [10]

Political stability that had been created by Akbar through a system of militarized governance support the achievement of progress in the fields of economy, science and civilization. Progress in the economic field is characterized by agricultural and industrial progress.

After Akbar, then the next ruler is Jahangir (1605-1628 AD), son of Akbar. Jahangir adherents Ahlussunnah wal worshipers. Jahangir's reign also saw the rebellion as a rebellion in Ambar is not able to put out. [11] The rebellion also emerged from the palace, led by the Kurram, his own son. With the help of the commander Muhabbat Khar, Jahangir Kurram arrested and imprisoned. But thanks to the efforts empress, hostility to the father and son reconciled.

Finally after Jahangir died, ascended the throne and title Kurram Shahabuddin Muhammad Muzaffar Shah Jehan Padshah Ghazi. Shah Jehan (1627-1658 AD), his reign marked by the onset of rebellion and strife among his own family. As of his mother, his sister Syahriar which established itself as the emperor in Lahore. But the rebellion can be completed properly. In the year 1657 AD, Shah Jehan fell ill and began to race arose among his children, because each wants to be emperor. In the fight, Aurangzeb emerged victorious karana has managed to beat his brothers Dara, Sujak, Murad. [12]

Aurangzeb was the last major Mugahl sultan who reigned from the year 1658-1707 AD [13] He holds Alamgir Padshah Ghazi. He adal; ah pemnguasa a brave and wise. Kebesarannyan parallel dengna Akbar, his predecessor. At the end of his reign he overran the Deccan, Bangla and Auid. Aurangzeb systems that run a lot different from its predecessor. Policies which were initiated by the previous kings of heavily modified, particularly with regard to relations with the Hindus. Aurangzeb was the ruler Muhghal reversing the policy of conciliation with Hindus. Among its policy is to prohibit liquor, gambling, prostitution and drug use (1659 M _. In 1664 he also issued a decree that it should not be forcing women to salidaho, namely self-immolation of a widow who lost a husband, without the will is concerned .. Eventually this practice was officially removed during the British rule. [14] Aurangzeb also banned musical performances at the palace, saddled with non-Muslim poll-tax, which taxes to get the right to vote (1668 AD), ordered the destruction of Hindu temples and sponsoring pengkodifikasian Islamic law, known as Fatawa Alamgiri. [15]

Ayrangzeb above action infuriated the Hindus. This is what eventually led to rebellion in his time. However, due to very strong Aurangzeb, the rebellion was extinguished. Although the rebellion-oemberiontakan can dipadamklan, but not entirely complete. This is evident when Aurangzeb died (1707 AD), many regions broke away from Mughal and Hindu uprising by the group.

After mmeninggal Aurangzeb (1707 AD), the Mughal dynasty was led by the sultans of the weak who can not defend the existence of the Mughal empire. The Mughal rulers after Aurangzeb, among others: Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712 AD), Jihandar Shah (1712-1713 AD), Farryuk Siyar (1713-1719 AD), Muhammad Shah (1719-1748 AD), Ahmad Shah ( 1748-1754 AD), Alamgir II (1754-1759 AD), Shah Alam (1759-1806 AD), Akbar II (1806-1837 AD), Bahadur Shah II (1837-1858 AD). [16]

D. The Mughal dynasty progress Achieved

A. Governance and Socio-political

Adal Mughal dynasty system of government; ah militaristic. The central government that are held by the sovereign dictatorship. Local governments are held by the commander or head of Sipah salar, while sub-districts held by faudjar (commander). Civilian positions are also on the man wearing military level officials were required to attend military training. [17] that stands out is the political system is viewed as all the people of India. They are not distinguished, because of ethnic and religious differences. In general politics "Sulakul

Economics and Finance
The field of Intellectual Property (Education and aPengetahuan)
The field of Architecture, Languages ​​and Literature

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