Sunday, May 13, 2012

History of Ibn Sina

Ibn Sina pundamental figure in many ways, Ibn Sina is one of the leaders of Islamic World, among the Muslim philosopher, Ibn Sina not only Pundamental, but Ibn Sina also earned high awards of up to modern times. Ibn Sina was the only philosopher of Islam and succeeded in building a complete and detailed system of philosophy, a system and then dominate the Muslim philosophical tradition several centuries. This paper discusses in detail about the biography of Ibn Sina. This paper not only discusses the biography of Ibn Sina, but also discusses Ibn Sina education , work- the work of Ibn Sina , Ibn Sina scientific method and others.

This influence is manifested not only by Ibn Sina has a system, but because the system of Ibn Sina / have it show its authenticity and indicate the type of soul genius in finding a method - the method and the reasons for return is required to formulate a purely rational and intellectual traditions of Hellenism then inherited Ibn Sina / avecinna and further the religious system of Islam.

a. Preliminary

Brilliant ideas the idea of Ibn Sina to contribute good enough for all the scientists, from both Muslim and non Muslim scientists. Ibn Sina's popularity is no doubt, especially those from the discovery of Ibn Sina in the field of medicine, it can be seen from his very popular book of the Qanun fi al-Thib, and much to contribute in the field of medical science.

bn Sina's full name is Abu `Ali al-Husayn ibn Hasan ibn` Abdillah ibn `Ali Sina. [1] In Europe (the West) Ibn Sina better known as Metamorphose result of the Judeo-Spanish-Latin. From the Spanish word for Ibn Sina Ibn Aben spoken or Event. This change begins with the translation effort Arabic texts into Latin in the middle of the twelfth century in Spain. [2] Ibn Sina was born in 370 AH / 980 AD at Afshana, a small town near Bukhara, Uzbekistan is now the region (the from Persia), [3] and died on the first Friday of Ramadan in 428 AD H/1037 the age of 57 years, the body was interred in Hamadzan Ibn Sina (Tehran). [4]

Ibn Sina's father was named Abdullah of Balkh is a distinguished scholar Ismaili, originally from Balkh, Khorasan, at the time of the birth of his son Ibn Sina, Ibn Sina's father served as governor of a region in one of Nuh ibn Mansur settlement, now of Afghanistan (Persian). Mother Ibn Sina / named Satarah came from Afshana. [5]

The name of the famous Ibn Sina Ibn Sina as the King of Bukhara was able to cure disease named Nuh ibn Mansur, Ibn Sina was the age of just 17 ​​years old. As a reward, the king asked Ibn Sina settled in the palace for the king in the healing process. But Ibn Sina rejects the fine, in return, he (Ibn Sina) only asked for permission to use the royal library of the books contained therein, the book is difficult to obtain.

It was Ibn Sina used to read, find various references to add to their knowledge base to grow wider. [6] Ibn Sina ability to quickly absorb the various branches of science made ​​him master the material property of the royal library. Because of his genius, the Ibn Sina a scientific degree, such as Shaykh Ra `is and Galenos Arab. Degree is achieved by Ibn Sina when he was a teenager. [7]

B. Intellectual biography of Ibn Sina

After Ibn Sina's father died when he / Ibn Sina was 22 years old, he (Ibn Sina) moved to Jurjan, a town near the Caspian Sea, where he (Ibn Sina) began writing about medical science encyclopedia became known by the name of al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Qanun). Ibn Sina then moved to Ray, the town next to Taheran, further / Ibn Sina Sayyedah work to the Queen and her son Majd al-Dawla. Then the Sultan Shams al-Dawla in the Hamdan ruling (in the Western portion of Iran) to appoint a minister Ibn Sina. Then Ibn Sina Hijrah to Isfahan, Ibn Sina died from illness for the dysentery Ibn Sina in the year 428 Hijrah in conjunction with the year 103 AD in Hamazan (now Iran). [8]

Ibn Sina Education
Ibn Sina began his education at the age of five years in his hometown of Bukhara. The first knowledge that he learned was to read the Koran, after which he went on to study the Islamic religious sciences such as Tafsir, Fiqh, etc. Ushuluddin, thanks to the diligence and intelligence, he managed to memorize the Koran and mastered a variety of branch of the religious sciences at the age of less than ten years. In other areas of education, he also studied several disciplines such as mathematics, logic, physics, medicine, Astronomy, Law, and so forth.

With the intelligence that he had, he studied philosophy and many branches - branch, which is quite admirable earnestness suggests that otodidaknya height, but by the time he was Arisstoteles explore the science of metaphysics, though he was having trouble reading it over and over again he even memorize it, it still he can not understand its contents. after he read the works of Al-Farabi in his treatise the book, then Ibn Sina can understand the science of metaphysics as well. Indirectly Ibn Sina has been studied for al-Farabi, even mentioned in his autobiography about budinya debt to Al-Farabi.

At age 16 he began to be known as a healer, and is completely known at the time he was 17 years old with proof that he has succeeded in curing the illness sultan Nuh Ibn Mansur Samani. To add to his knowledge, he also spent much of his time sebahagian read and discuss books that he considered important in the royal library named Mansur ibn Nuh polar Khana, this is where he releases the thirst of learning during the night so that all science can be mastered very well.

D. Masters Ibn Sina

In addition to the self-taught, Ibn Sina also absorb a variety of science teachers from several people, including Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Ahmad al-Khwarizmi to Barqi linguistics, Ismail al-Zahid for the science of jurisprudence, Abu Sahl al-Mansur Abu Masihi and al-Hasan bin Nuh to medical science. He / Ibn Sina also learn Arithmetic of `Ali Ismaili berkebangsaaan Natili a mystic India.

E. Ibn Sina Scientific Method

Ibn Sina is a great Islamic philosopher who managed to build a comprehensive and detailed system of philosophy, a system has dominated the Muslim philosophical tradition several centuries. This influence is manifested not only by Ibn Sina has a system, but because the system reveals its authenticity also shows the soul of genius in determining the methods and the need to redefine a purely rational and intellectual traditions of Ibn Sina or to inherit and the religious system of Islam. [13] Among the methods - the method of Ibn Sina's most popular ideas are:

TB disease in medicine that is also Chronis
About dangerous diseases is very disturbing modern-day man, it's been found and had looked for treatment by Ibn Sina in a thousand years ago. Desmond Stewart said the new discoveries about infectious diseases Ibnu Sina tuberculosis and could harm human health at this time, as well as Chrionis disease.

In his book "Early Islam", Stewart explained: "Ibn Sina is credited Now Contributions with personal Such as recognizing the contagious nature of tuberculosis and skin diseases and describing Certain psychological disorders. Among the latter was love sickness, the effects of the which were described as loss of weight and strength, fever and Various chronic ailments. The cure was quite simple, once the diagnosis was made ​​to have the sufferer united with the one he or she was pining for. Ibn Sina also observed That Certain diseases can be spread by water and soil, and an advanced view for his time. Outside the realm of pure medicine, he invented a device precision saclike That helped to improv the accuracy of instruments used for measuring angles and short lengths. He also made ​​many investigations in the realm of physics, Helping to lay the foundations of experimental science That was to develop in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries ". [14]

Meaning: "Ibn Sina left now shares personal information about recognition of the contagious nature of tuberculosis, in addition to Ibn Sina wrote about how to treat skin diseases and mental illness. Among the latter disease, Ibn Sina hospital has found love (love sicknes), due to loss of balance and self-preservation, as well as with the fever heat also Chronis diseases. Treatment is very simple, after examination, the patient can then be reconciled with those who dirinduinya, of men as women

G. The influence of Ibn Sina

Influence of philosophical works of Ibn Sina as thought and his study in the medical field is not restricted to the Muslim world but also spread to Europe. Contribution of Ibn Sina to the thought and science is great, recognized significant to scientists, thinkers and filusuf succeeding generations. Thanks to his achievements in medical science, Ibn Sina gained the nickname "Father of the DDI in his octors" (Father of The Doctor). Natsir Arsyad [17] states that the veteran physician Ibn Sina Medicorum once dubbed as the Principal or the "King of Kings Doctor", by the Latin scholastics. Another nickname ever given to Ibn Sina, for example, is the "King of Medicine". In the Islamic world itself, he / Ibn Sina considered the zenith, the highest peak in medical science.

George Sarton, stating that the medical achievements of Ibn Sina down so completely that other contributions from around the world, as if they just make smaller discoveries, and while it shrinks the original investigation a few centuries after Ibn Sina. Sarton also describes the influence of Ibn Sina is also great scope for the development of Western medicine. Scientific work (textbook) Ibn Sina is a reference to the main base of medical knowledge in Europe in the period of time longer than the other books. [18]

It seems like the most important contributions of Ibn Sina and Ibn Sina bequeathed to the world of medicine is the medical sciences, the Qanun fi al-Tibb (Canon of Medicine, the Constitution of Medical Sciences). Seyyed Hossein Nasr [19] states that it is a masterpiece of Qanun pa most widely read work is also a big influence on medical science, Islam and Europe. This great work is one of the most often printed book in Europe in the Renaissance in his Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona. Standard text book consists of five main sections: general principles, drugs, diseases of certain organs, localized disease tend to spread throughout the body, is like a fever, and drug compound. Arsyad also mention that the book Qanun Ibn Sina since the Han dynasty in China had become standard medical works of China. In the Middle Ages, a large number of works of Ibn Sina was translated into Latin and Hebrew, the work of Ibn Sina in the field of language was the language of instruction-science era. [20]

In the field of philosophy, a. Introduction / spanibnu Sina considered the imam of the philosopher in his time, even before and after. Ibn Sina self-taught, original genius of the Islamic world is not only flattering, he / Ibn Sina's is one sparkly star emits its own light, not a loan so that Roger Bacon, the famous philosopher of Western Europe during the Middle Ages Regacy of state in his Alfred Gullaume Islam; " Most of Aristotle's philosophy can not give the slightest influence in the West, because his book hidden somewhere, even if there is, once he gets very difficult and very difficult to be understood and loved people because of the wars are rampant in the east, until the time of Ibn Sina and Ibn Rushd and other Eastern poets also proves again the philosophy of Aristotle along with lighting and an extensive explanation. [21]

In addition to their versatility as flosof and physician, Ibn Sina was a poet. Sciences such as psychology, medicine and chemistry there is written in poetic form, can be found through books authored for the logic of science with poetry. Most of his books have been copied from the Latin. When the people of the middle century Europe, began to use the books as a textbook in many universities. Hence the name Ibn Sina in the Middle Ages in Europe is very influential. [22] In the Islamic world the books of Ibn Sina famous, not only because of the density of his knowledge, but because language is a good way to write very light accompaniment. In addition to writing in Arabic, Ibn Sina also wrote in Persian. His books in Persian, was published in Tehran in 1954.

Can be concluded that such a large influence on the thinking of Ibn Sina that he / Ibn Sina pour upon us. Great ideas of Ibn Sina gives a significant impact in science, for which let us multiply thanksgiving because we can learn the sciences of Ibn Sina through his works.

H. Lessons from the personal character of Ibn Sina

Important lessons can be learned from the story above from Ibn Sina began to childhood, adolescence to old age is that life is indeed full of struggle and hard work in their studies so that knowledge can be useful to themselves and others. Balance are also devout faith Ibn Sina, as evidenced by studying the Quran from small to prove that the soul of childhood filled with the Holy Spirit so that in the course of his life is always hope and the blessings and resignation to God to achieve the goals, in addition to trying to learn science by teachers and learning a self-taught.

By reading the Koran early on humans can explore science in it, because the Qur'an is true for natural science and this is practice. Ibn Sina was thoroughly combine all that is between the Qur'an and the practice in this universe, so came the idea- ideas or thoughts do not exist in the West at that time. With the work at that time could change the world in the medical field is very impressive also amazing, it is worth Ibn Sina was the inspiration of many people, both Muslims and non Muslims and want to learn about science, especially medicine, philosophy and natural sciences.

As parents and descendants have always wanted children to be smart kids in all areas, of course, it is recommended to follow the life story of Ibn Sina above. That is a lesson to balance between religion and science general knowledge or science as a practice. So if the way to the goal to be achieved, in the middle of the road having problems or gravel, then the child is not easily discouraged. But it can pause from the hustle and bustle world, then get closer to the Creator of life, then God willing all the difficulties, obstacles resolved soon because we will always remember the Creator. Although it was not on the face of adversity just to ask for help, but every time we have to remember menginggat to God, so that all the work to be done is always given by him Ridho, may be facilitated despite all the obstacles there, but if from the beginning was intended to both interest and for the people, must always be guided by him.

Ibn Sina as scientists I.Karir

Avicenna first started his career following his parents' pursuit of helping tasks amir Nuh ibn Mansur. Ibn Sina asked to compile such a collection of philosophical thinking by Abu al-Husain al-Arudi. To this Ibn Sina compiled the book al-Majmu '. After that Ibn Sina writes a book al-Hashil wa al-Mashul and al-Birr wa al-Ism at the request of Abu Bakr al-al-Hawarizmy Barqy [23].

After the age of Ibn Sina or entered the twenty-two years old, his father died, then there was chaos in the body politics of government Nuh ibn Mansur. Both sons of the kingdom, namely Mansur, Abd Malik powers vied with each other, then won by Abdul Malik. Furthermore the government is not yet stable when it happens serbuam by Mahmud al-Ghaznavids empire, so that the entire region centered in Bukhara Samani kingdom fell into the hands of Mahmud al-Ghaznavids is [24].

In a state of chaos bagitu political situation, Ibn Sina decided to leave the region of origin. Ibn Sina went to the capital of al-Khawarizm Karkang, Ibn Sina in the area are also treated properly honored. In this city also Ibn Sina much acquainted with a number of experts such as scientists, Abu al-Khir al-Khamar, Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-al-Jurjani Masity, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and Abu al-Iraqi Nash. After that Ibn Sina proceeded to Nasa, Abiwarud, Syaqan, next to the Jurjan Jajarin. After the city last visited Ibn Sina is also less secure, Ibn Sina decided to move to Rayi, working on the As-Sayyida and his son Majid al-Daula, the time of developing the disease, and help heal it. Historical and scientific journey of his life in terms of the two phases can dibahagi. The first is the establishment phase (al-tahsil) and the productive phase (al-al-ilmi intaj).

The first phase of the learning phase of Ibn Sina began from the age of five years so that in ten years studying the Koran and also basic religious sciences. Ibn Sina was having a much dominated by his studies, Ibn Sina more absorbing; in which the activity of Ibn Sina's more to the receptive and retentive. Phase two, namely the productive phase, during Ibn Sina was twenty-one this tahun.Waktu Ibn Sina began a productive activity. Ibn Sina is more productive activities that generate the works productively and synthesis. Ibn Sina began writing books about metaphysics, logic, kedoktoran, psychology, physics.

F. major works of Ibn Sina

In the history of his life, Ibn Sina, also known as a scientist who is very productive in producing various works of the book. Essay books covering almost all branches of science, diantarannya medical science, philosophy, psychology, physics, logic, political and literary Arabic. As for his works as follows:
  • Book of the Qanun fi al-Thib, is the work of Ibn Sina in the field of medical science. This book had become the only reference in the field of medicine in Europe for about five centuries. This book is a treatment iktisar Islam also is taught up to now in the East.
  • The Book of As-Shifa, is the work of Ibn Sina in the field of philosophy. The book is, among others, contains a description of philosophy in all its aspects 
  • The Book of An-Najah, a book about the summary of the book As-Shifa, the book was written by Ibn Sina for students who want to learn the basics of science lessons, in addition to a complete book also discusses Ibn Sina's thinking about the science of the Soul.
  • Book Aqsam Fi al-Ulum al-Aqliyah, is the work of Ibn Sina in the field of physics. The book is written in Arabic are still stored in various libraries in Istanbul, its publication was first performed in Cairo in 1910 AD, while the translation into Hebrew and Latin are still there until now. 
  • Kitab al-wa al-Tanbihat cues, it contains a description of the logic and wisdom [15].
In addition to these books are still many works of Ibn Sina sizeable, but to find out how many books the works of Ibn Sina / is certainly very difficult, given the difference of a little amount of data used. But to answer this, at least two opinions. First, from the investigation conducted by the Father of Domician in Cairo to the works of Ibn Sina, he recorded as many as 276 (two hundred seventy six) pieces. Secondly, Phillip K.Hitti using the list and made ​​al-Qifti said that the works of Ibn Sina wrote about 99 (ninety nine) of fruit [16].

The influence of Ibn Sina's philosophical thought as well as the work of his study in the medical field is not restricted to the Muslim world but also spread to Europe. Ibn Sina's contributions to the thought and science is great to have a significant and recognized scientists, thinkers, filusuf succeeding generations. Thanks to his achievements in medical science, Ibn Sina gained the nickname "Father of Doctors" (Father of The Doctor). Natsir Arsyad [17] states that the veteran physician Avicenna Medicorum been dubbed the Principal or the "King of Kings Doctor", by the Latin scholastics. Another nickname was also given to Ibn Sina, such as, "King of Medicine". In the world of Islam, Ibn Sina considered the zenith, the highest peak in medical science.

George Sarton, stating that the medical achievements of Ibn Sina down so completely that other contributions from around the world, as if they only make a small discovery, while it shrinks the original investigation period of several centuries after Ibn Sina. Sarton also describes the influence of Ibn Sina is also great scope for the development of Western medicine. Scientific work (textbook) Ibn Sina is a reference to the main base of medical knowledge in Europe in the period of time longer than the other books ever written. [18]

It seems like the most important contributions of Ibn Sina was bequeathed to the world of medicine in medical science, the Qanun fi al-Tibb (Canon of Medicine, the Constitution of Medical Sciences). Seyyed Hossein Nasr [19] states that it works great Qanun is the most widely read work, this is a big influence on medical science, Islam and Europe. This great work is one of the most often printed book in Europe in the Renaissance in his Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona. Standard text book consists of five main sections: general principles, drugs, diseases of certain organs, localized disease tend to spread throughout the body, is like a fever, as well as compound drugs. Arsyad also mentioned that Ibn Sina's Qanun book since the Han dynasty in China had become standard medical works of China. In the Middle Ages, a large number of works of Ibn Sina was translated into Latin, Hebrew as well, which are the languages ​​of science instruction time. [20]

In the field of philosophy, Ibn Sina considered the imam of the philosopher in his time, even before and after. Ibn Sina also self-taught genius, original, not just the Islamic world flatter (Ibn Sina) as a glamorous star emits its own light, nor is it a loan, so that Roger Bacon, the famous philosopher of Western Europe during the Middle Ages nbsp; filusuf succeeding generations. Thanks to his achievements in medical science, Ibn Sina gained the nickname of Islam said in his Regacy Gullaume Alfred: "Much of Aristotle's philosophy can not give the slightest influence in the West, because his book hidden somewhere, even if there is, once he gets very difficult and very difficult to understand then favored people due to war - war sebeleah rampant in the East, until such time as Ibn Sina, Ibn Rushd also other Eastern poets proving again the philosophy of Aristotle along with lighting and an extensive explanation. [21]

In addition to their versatility as flosof and physician, Ibn Sina was a poet. Science - science such as psychology, medicine and chemistry written in poetic form, can be found through the books of Ibn Sina to the logic of science with poetry. many books of Ibn Sina has been copied from the Latin. When the people of the middle century Europe, began to use the book - the book as a textbook in many universities. Hence the name of Ibn Sina in the Middle Ages in Europe is very influential. [22] In the Islamic world the books of Ibn Sina famous, not only because of the density of his knowledge, but because the language is good and the way he writes is very bright. In addition to writing in Arabic, Ibn Sina also wrote in Persian. His books in Persian, was published in Tehran in 1954.

Can be concluded that such a large influence of Ibn Sina's figure of thought which he poured upon us. Great ideas of Ibn Sina gives a significant impact in science, for which let us multiply thanksgiving because we can learn the sciences of the works of Ibn Sina.

If you are interested to copy paper, so I allowed it outright, but I hope my friend put my link ya .. I'm sure a good friend. other than paper History of Ibn Sina by: Ibrahim Lubis, S.Pd.I, you can read the other paper in theAneka Ragam Makalah. And If You Want to Share your paper to my blog please click here .
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Look Footnote the paper History of Ibn Sina here

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