Wednesday, May 30, 2012

HISTORY OF EAST Umayyads (Damascus)

East Umayyad dynasty that is intended in this paper was founded by descendants of the pioneering Muawiyyah Umayyads based in Damascus. Setting the embryo of the dynasty began when Ali bin Abi Talib was inducted into the place of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan caliph, one of Ali's early policy was the takeover of land and state assets have been distributed by Usman to the family and dismiss governors and appointed government officials invited him to put his position, but the Syrians refused Muawiyyah governor as well as the dismissal was not willing allegiance as Caliph Ali, and even formed a strong group and refused to fulfill the commandments of Ali. He tried to avenge the death of Caliph Uthman, or else he will attack the position of caliph with Syrians soldiers. Muawiyyah insistence finally spilled the Siffin war. [1] The battle was almost defeated army troops Muawiyyah Ali, but thanks to a strategy advisor to Muawiyyah is Amr bin 'As, in order to raise troops Mushaf Al-Qur'an Manuscripts at the end of their spears, sign call for peace. Not only was the war that ended in unfavorable Tahkim Siffin Ali, but it's also due to Ali's own camp into two, namely the split remained loyal to the Shiite Ali called out and called the Kharijites. Since then, Ali no longer move his troops to subdue Muawiyyah but pounding out those Kharijites, the last event took place on 09 Shafar Nahrawan 38 H, where from 1800 the Kharijites only 8 survivors of the eight men of his soul so that it spreads to Amman , Karman, Yemen, Sajisman and the Arabian Peninsula. [2] However, the Kharijites are always trying to seize the Islamic masses of followers of Ali, and Muawiyyah, because they believe that the two leaders is the source of the upheavals, they determined to kill both leaders, but only Ali who was killed on 20 Ramadlan Kuffah 40 H in a mosque during dawn prayers Ali.

After Ali died, the people immediately allegiance Hasan bin Ali as Caliph. Because at the number of disputes among his friends and see the importance of human friendship, then Hasan ibn Ali to the peace agreement and hand over power to his government in Rabiul Muawiyyah H 41 Early the next year or the year the group called the Aam pilgrims, because the Muslims have agreed makes one caliph to be their leader of the Bani Umayyad Muawiyyah. [3]

Departing from the handover of power to Hasan bin Ali Bani Umayyad Muawiyyah is, in this paper will discuss about the rise of the Umayyad Dynasty reign East (Damascus) as the new ruler. Starting from the history of the establishment, his reign with the progress made, especially the dynamics of political, social and economic, intellectual and religious to the dynasty collapsed.

B. History The establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty East (Damascus).

As mentioned in the introduction, this is the establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty Muawwiyah determination to be the caliph, long after the assassination of Uthman ibn Affan, but constrained by Ali as the fourth caliph because he is still there. But the death of Ali was a golden bridge for Muawwiyah to realize his determination. Initially there was an attempt Hasan bin Ali to avenge his father's death and added suggestions from community groups to Hasan bin Ali succeed his father, but Hasan doubt their own capabilities and strengths so that eventually he would be willing to admit Muawiyyah as caliph provided that: Muawiyyah no grudge against the Iraqi people and are willing to guarantee security and forgive their iniquity, Ahwaz land tax land dedicated to Hasan and given every year, and providing for the Bani Hashim should be more than the Bani Abdi Sham. Decisions of the peace treaty (tahkim) was approved by Muawiyyah Muawiyyah 41H so in order to enter the city Kuffah sworn in the presence of two sons Ali, Hasan and Husain are witnessed by many people. This dynasty was in Damascus the capital of his government, which since the caliph Uthman, Muawiyyah devote all his energies to strengthen and prepare the Syrians as the center of his power in kemuadian day. [4] Over the past 91 years, this dynasty ruled the caliphate some people, they are:

A. Abu Sufyan bin Muawiyyah 661 s / d 680

2. Yazid bin Muawiyyah 680 s / d 683

3. Yazid bin Muawiyyah 683 s / d 684

4. Marwan bin Hakam 684 s / d 685

5. Abdul Malik bin Marwan 685 s / d 705

6. Walid bin Abdul Malik I 705 s / d 715

7. Abdul Malik bin Sulaiman 715 s / d 717

8. Umar bin Abdul Aziz 717 s / d 720

9. Yazid ibn Abdul Malik 720 s / d 724

10. Hisham bin Abdul Malik 724 s / d 743

11. Walid II ibn Yazid II 743 s / d 744

12. Yazid III 744

12. Ibrahim ibn al-Walid II 744

13. Marwan bin Muhammad II II 744 s / d 750 [5]

Among the many Caliphs Umayyad Dynasty was only a few caliphs who occupy a position in a long time, namely: Muawiyyah bin Abu Sufyan, Abdul Malik bin Marwan, Walid bin Abdul Malik, Umar bin Abdul Aziz and Abdul Malik bin Hashim

Establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty East is owed Muawiyyah bin Abu Sufyan, the figure of a politician, military leader, the Prophet's companions who had trusted to write down the revelation, and the government Caliph Umar bin Khattab, he is believed to be the governor Syrians for nearly 20 years and the Caliph Uthman bin Affan appointed as well as Amir al-Bahr (prince of the sea), which ruled the Syrians to the Mediterranean Sea. [6] Track record is very supportive of the political hegemony of Muawiyyah get the Syrians to design and lay the foundation of a joint community-based Umayyad dynasty rational, so solid in its political development in the future.

Muawiyyah built solidity to a dynasty is sustained by several factors: First the strong support of the Syrians and the Umayyads, on one hand the Syrians have been formed as a spirit of militancy and a formidable army under the leadership Muawiyyah, and Bani Umayyad capital famous for its group, resident and respected Arab community on the other, so that the two variables are supported Muawiyyah to get stimulation and incentives as a force that has strong roots in politics and economics in the Syrians. Both as an administrator, Muawiyyah with its policy could easily put the maid in a strategic position, among them are: 'Amar ibn' Ash, Mughirah bin Ziyad bin Syu'bah and Abihi. These three figures have the ability and political reputations admired Arab society. Third Muawiyyah have the ability as a true statesman. [7] Of the factors East Umayyad dynasty that later became a large and influential dynasty, especially in the Arabian Peninsula in particular and the world at large.

C. The progress Achieved

Establishment of the Umayyad Dynasty East is the initial picture that Muslims when it has regained its identity as a sovereign state, is also a third phase of Muslim rule that lasted for about a century (661-750 AD). Changes were made, not only the Islamic ruling system of the previous period (the time of Prophet and Khulafaurrasyidin) but also other changes in the socio-political, religious, intellectual and civilization. [8]

1.Dinamika political, social and economic

In early development, the dynasty was heavily colored by the political nuances of Islamic rule to move the capital from Medina to Damascus [9] The policy was intended not only to the strong existence of the dynasty that has got the political legitimacy of the Syrians, but more than it is for security in country that often gets attacks of his political rivals.

The transfer of power systems is also done Muawiyyah, as a form of denial of democracy that built the Prophet and the fourth Caliph, who based the selection of the caliphate, or empire fell into decline deliberation (heridetis monarchy). [10] Replacement of the caliphate hereditary Muawiyyah attitude starts from the lift his son, Yazid, as crown prince. This attitude is influenced by the Syrians over the territory he became governor and was intended to imitate the monarchy heridetis in Persia and the Byzantine empire.

At the time of the Prophet and the fourth caliph, membership society in general, in all cases is limited only by religion, so that the community largely made up of Muslims and non Muslims, and in treating Muslims as a majority can be distinguished according to two criteria, which led to the first that are practical and often applied to groups, and the second criteria in the form of community service actions that are more personal. In addition to these two criteria, in terms of membership of the Umayyad dynasty must come from the Arabs, while the non-Arab people after becoming a Muslim should not be supporting (mawali) Arabs. Thus masyarakt Muslims in the Umayyad dynasty consisted of two groups, namely Arabic and mawali. [11]

With a homogeneous society, the ruler of this dynasty raises ambition to unite the community with the political Arabism, [12] is to build a large Arab nation and also became Muslims. Efforts in that direction, among others, require to make a birth certificate Arab community for the children who were born in areas of conquest, the Arabic obligation to the people of the Islam and even customs and attitudes, they are required to be Arab. [13]

Other Umayyads policy is expansionist efforts of power. At the time of Muawiyyah, Uqbah bin Nafi 'overran the city of Tunis who later founded Qairawan as an Islamic cultural center in the year 760 AD To the east, Muawiyyah obtain Khorasan region to Lahore in Pakistan. In the west and north of the Byzantine and can be directed to subdue Rhodes and other islands in Yunani.Pada year 48 H, Muawiyyah sea and land planning an attack against Constantinople, but failed after the loss of their troops and warships. [14]

Age of Walid I, with the help of three prominent leaders of the troops as conquerors, namely: Qutaybah bin Muslim, Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Qasim and Nasir, expansion to the west and the east to achieve success. Westward expansion carried out by Musa bin Nasir, managed to beat Algeria and Morocco, then he raised Tariq bin Ziyad as his deputy to govern in that area and do a power struggle in the West Gotia kingdom in Spain for the conquest, the Spanish capital of Toledo finally fell to Muslim forces following the city of Seville, Malaga, Elvira and Cordova who later became the capital of Islamic Spain (Al Andalus). [15]

After conquering Spain, Musa bin Nasir took part to Spain and continue its expansion by seizing Carmona, Cadiz in the southeast and northwest of Calica. He decided to continue its expansion to the south of France, but there is concern over the influence of Walid I ibn Musa Nasir might be proclaimed throughout the conquered country, so I ordered Walid to end its expansion into Europe and called Musa and Tariq to Damascus. [16]

In the old Abdul Malik, was appointed by al Qutaybah Hajjaj bin Yusuf, governor of Khorasan, became his deputy in the year 86 H.Bersama army, can beat Qutaybah Balkh, Bukhara, Khawarizm, Farghana and Masarkand. Business expansion into China undone, because the delegation was told to go back to the leader by mutual exchange of souvenirs, Qutaybah receive money and print stamps with the help youth explore the kingdom and his power and returned to Merv, the capital of Khurasan. [17]

Muhammad bin Qasim al-Hajjaj to be trusted by subjecting H India.Pada 89 years, he headed to Sind and the besieged port at the mouth of the river Indus Deibul, then the place was named Mihram. He expanded his conquests to the south of Punjab and Maltan Brahmanabat. [18] Map of power can be seen in Appendix I of this paper.

The victories gained widespread Muslims, it makes the Arabs residing in the conquest, and even landlords. [19] To the owner of the land required by the Umayyad dynasty to pay land tax, but tax only applies to the head non-Muslim population, resulting in the number of people who converted to Islam, consequently economically reduced state revenues, but with the success of the Umayyad Dynasty conquered the Persian Empire and its territories belonging to the Byzantine Empire, the real wealth of this dynasty abundance flowing to state coffers. [20] Policies Dynasty in other economic areas is to ensure a secure state for land and sea traffic, road traffic through the silk road to China in order to facilitate trade in silk, ceramics, pharmaceuticals and fragrances, while sea traffic in the direction of the eastern countries to seek spices, seasonings, kasturi, gems, precious metals, ivory and fur-Buluan. [21] The situation thus making the city of Basra and Aden in the Persian Gulf to trade traffic and a busy trading port, because the merchant ships under the protection of the fleet Islam that leads to the Syrians and the Egyptians almost unending. Trade developments have prompted increasing prosperity Umayyad dynasty.

At the time of Caliph Abdul Malik, has pioneered a handicraft industry tiraz (sort of embroidery) that is the official stamp is printed on the clothing of the caliph and magistrates, saying tiraz format lafadz "La ilaha Illa Allah". In order to facilitate the productivity of the royal attire, then Abdul Malik founded factories of cloth, and each is supervised by Sahib plant aimed at Tiraz goldsmiths and tailors oversee, investigate the work and pay their salaries. [22]

In the field of governance, forming a kind of dynasty, the Secretary of State Council (Diwan al Kitabah) consisting of five secretaries, namely: ar Rasail Katib, Katib al Kharraj, Jund al-Katib, Katib Syurtah ash and Katib al Qadi. [23] For the administration of local government , in lifting an Amir al Umara (Governor General) in charge of some emirs as rulers of the region.

At the time of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan, the way the government is determined by four main departments (diwan), namely:
Ministry of Land Tax (diwan al kharraj) who oversees the finance department
Khatam ministry (diwan al seal) in charge of designing and passed legislation / government ordinance
Correspondence ministry (diwan al rasail) is believed to control the problems in these areas and all communications from the governors
Taxation affairs ministry (diwan al mustagallat). [24]



2. Intellectual and Religious

In the reign of Abdul Malik, there are many languages ​​used in the administration, such as Persian, Greek and Qibti, but the effort Salih bin Abdur Rahman, the secretary of al-Hajjaj, he tried to make Arabic as a language of administration and the official language throughout the country so that attention and efforts to improve knowledge of Arabic linguists that led to the birth of his writings al Sibawaihi with the Book to be hold in a matter of Arabic grammar.

In the territory there are the cities of the Greek cultural center of Alexandria, Antioch, Harran and Yunde Sahpur originally developed by scientists Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians [25] Khalid bin Yazid bin Khalifah Muawiyyah an orator and a sharp-minded attempt to translate the book- books on astronomy, medicine and chemistry.

Caliph Walid bin Abdul Malik Bimaristan attention to, namely the hospital as a place of treatment, care for the sick and the study of medicine who was in Damascus, while Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz ordered the clergy formally to record the hadiths of the Prophet, and in addition he friendship with Ibn Abjar, a physician from Alexandria who later became his personal physician. [26]

The scientists who come from other religions, although there are converted to Islam and there are still persisted in his religion, such as Yahya al Diamsyqi an official at the time of Abdul Malik bin Marwan, a Christian fanatic who tried to defend akidahnya. With the method of logic he maintained "al still as the second Lord". [27] From their attitude encourages Muslims to investigate and study the logic of faith to defend Islam as well as to break their proof, the group is then considered as a group or groups of rationalists Mu'tazilah . [28]

Another influence of the Christian Scientists are preparing a systematic science, but it also changed the system of rote learning in the teaching of writing system according to the rules applicable science. Supporting the development of science is a class of non-Arab, and his study has been extended so that there is a specialization of science: science pengatahuan the religious sector, history, linguistics and philosophy. [29], among others Sibawaihi scholar, al Pharisees, al Zujaj (expert nahwu ), al Zuhry, Abu Zubair, Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Muslim and Muslim Bukhari (the Hadith scholars) and Mujahid bin Jabbar (the commentators).


D. Deterioration and destruction of the Umayyad Dynasty East

Muawiyyah dynasty founded by the son of Abu Sufyan, from some of the caliphs who came to power, only a few people who are considered successful in running the government, among others: Muawiyyah bin Abu Sufyan, Abdul Malik bin Marwan, al Walid bin Abdul Malik, Umar bin Abdul Aziz and Hisham bin Abdul Malik, besides those that are weak caliphs. This dynasty reached its peak in the Al Walid bin Abdul Malik I, and then finally dropped and their power usurped by the 'Abbasids in 750 AD [30]

Among the factors causing the collapse of the Umayyad dynasty, according to Ibrahim Hasan Hasan is:

Crown Prince Two 1.Pengangkatan

Changes in the power system, from monarchy to democracy pioneered Muawiyyah bin Abu Sufyan, resulting in growth of seedlings of hostility and competition among fellow members of the family dynasty, and coupled with a two-step removal of the crown prince is given a mandate for a second crown prince as the successor after the first, it is done caliph Marwan bin al-Hakim with Abdul Malik bin Marwan raised and Abdul Aziz, Abdul Malik was the next to follow his late father by appointing his son, Walid and Sulayman al yatu. This move not only into enmity and rivalry among fellow members of the family but also spread into the environment of the commanders and officers. [31]

2. The emergence of Fanaticism Interest

After Yazid bin Muawiyyah died, ethnic bigotry spread among the Arab tribes, but not to endanger the Umayyad forces from undermining other forces who want the destruction as the holder of Muslim political supremacy.

These conditions can still be controlled prior to the appearance of Umar bin Abdul Aziz as a Caliph, he was a pious and just. In his reign filled with repairing the damage done by previous Umayyad caliphs, so the legality of his leadership is recognized and accepted by all parties who do not recognize the Bani tribe Umayyah.Ia free from fanaticism, because he did not appoint a governor but by skill and justice owned by the concerned. [32]

But when Umar bin Abdul Aziz died, and held the Caliphate of Yazid bin Abdul Malik, was slander and discord among the northern Arabs (Arab Mudar) / tribe of Qais in southern Arabia (Yemen Arab) / sons of Kalb heats, which was then a war Murj Rahith , [33] the husband's dance killing bin Abu al Mulahhab Shufrah of the Yemen Arab, he is a man who has devoted his entire life and its potential in the Umayyad, the defense in the face of the war al Azariqah Khawarij, Khurasan and residents battled al-Khazar, and the people Turkey. After the death of al Mulahhab, concern arose that his son and tumpuhan Yamani Arab parties to undermine the sovereignty of East Umayyads. However, once the Umayyad Arabs sided with Qais and other times to the Arab Yemen.

Tribal fanaticism can be seen when Yazid ibn Abdul Malik lifted his brother is governor of the eastern Maslamah after their meritorious son al Mulahhab subvert rebellion, and also raised Umar bin Hubairah from the tribe of Qais.

When Yazid died and his brother the caliph Hisham ascended the throne the new judge that the position of Qais people in the government was too strong, and this, according to Hisham is endangering the continuity of the Umayyad government, then he took the action in a way people get rid of Qais power and turning pro Yamani element, is intended to balance the two elements. [34] To that end he picked Khalid bin Abdullah al Qasari as governor of Iraq, and also raised the brother Khalid Asad as governor of Khurasan. Thus the elements of strength and power plays back Yamani Qaisi elements weakened, then the people from the elements Yamani had the opportunity to shed their revenge to the people of Qaisi elements.

Thus the tribal fanaticism that has been tearing at the Umayyad dynasty, so the state becomes an arena for the growth of a variety of libel and riots and then the collapse of this dynasty going.

3.Terlena In Luxury

The pattern of the Umayyads caliphs lived most extravagant and riotous fun as a way of life inherited the Byzantine rulers is another factor that has planted a big hand for the collapse of this dynasty. Muawiyyah bin Yazid was a caliph of the Umayyad dynasty is known as a great admirer of women, female singers maintain, preserve bird of prey, the lion of the desert and an alcoholic. [35]

Behavior of Yazid ibn Abdul Malik is also no better than Yazid bin Muawiyyah, he is a devotee of a woman and a fan of debauchery. Similarly, the son of al Walid, he was a caliph who are pleased with the luxurious life and carried away with romance romance. [36]

4. Arab fanatics

The Umayyad dynasty was purely good fortune Arab, so he was a fanatic to the Arabs and kearabannya. They looked at the non-Arab (mawali) with a view of one eye, giving rise to libel law among fellow Muslims, in addition it also has aroused nationalism in Islam.Bibit than geraka is the notion that Arabs are the most important and precious and Arabic is the language most tingga compared with the others.

Discriminatory action has aroused the hatred of the Umayyads mawali, eventually as the oppressed they are always looking for the right time to vent his hatred. They joined with al Mukhtar and the Khawarij for fellowship and coupled with the propagandist Abassi to revolt and overthrow the Umayyad dynasty. [37]

Ally the opposition movement against the Umayyad dynasty with the leadership of Muhammad bin Ali and his sons followed ibrahim and Abu Abbas is supported by the supporting Ali in Khurasan. Under the leadership of agile commanders, Abu Muslim al Khurasani, the movement can be controlled by the Umayyad dynasty territory and even in the Upper Zab fighting in eastern Mosul, Marwan II, last Caliph Umayyad Dynasty can be defeated, Marwan II was killed in Egypt in August 750 AD and ended the power of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus.

If you are interested to copy paper, so I allowed it outright, but I hope my friend put my link ya .. I'm sure a good friend. other than  paper HISTORY OF EAST Umayyads (Damascus), you can read the other paper in the Aneka Ragam Makalah. And If You Want to Share your paper to my blog please click Here. By Ibrahim Lubis and My Email ibrahimstwo0@gmail.com
References and Footnote
REFERENCES

Amin, Ahmad. Duha al-Islam. Cairo: al Nahdah.1972 Maktabah

Al Usairi, Ahmad. Since the Age of the Prophet Islamic history until XX century. New York: Akbar Media Facility. 2003

Hasyimi. Culture history of Islam. Jakarta: In Bintang.1972

Ibrahim Hasan, Hasan. History and Human Culture Ibn Islam.terj.Jahdan. London: City of Flowers. 1995

K. Hitti, Philip. Arab world. trs. Ushuluddin Hutagalung and ODP Sihombing. Bandung: Bandung well. Tt

Mas'udi, Ali. Muruj Dzahab adh. Volume 2

Mufradi, Ali. Islam in Arab Culture Region. New York: Logos. 1999

Maryam, Siti (Ed), History of Islamic Civilization From The Classics To Modern, New York: SPI Adab IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2002

Nasution, Aaron. Judging from various aspects of Islam. I. Jakarta: UI Press.1978

Syalaby, Ahmad. History and Culture Islam.Jilid I.terj. Muchtar Yahya. Jakarta: Library al Husna. 1983

Sunanto, Musyrifah. Classical Islamic history. New York: Prenada Media. 2003

Watt, Mountgomery. W. Throes of Islamic political thought. New York: Bennabi Notices. 1985.


Footnote

[1] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, History and Culture of Islam, trans, Jahdan Ibn Human (New York: City of Flowers, 1995), h.62

[2] Ahmad Al Usairi, History of Islam since the Age of the Prophet Adam Till XX Century, (London: Akbar Media Means, 2003), h.176

[3] Ibid. h.177

[4] Ahmad Syalaby, History and Culture of Islam, I trans. Muchtar Yahya, (New York, al-Husna Books, 1983), h.27.

[5] Ali Mufradi, Arab Islamic Culture in the Region, (Jakarta, Logos, 1999) cet II.h.72

[6] Ibid. h. 70

[7] Ibid. h. 71

[8] Siti Maryam (Ed), History of Islamic Civilization From The Classics To Modern, (New York: SPI Adab IAIN Sunan Kalijaga, 2002), h.79

[9] Ibid.h. 79

[10] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Islamic History and Culture, p. 63

[11] W.Montgomery Watt, Islamic Political Thought Turbulence, (New York, Bennabi Copyright, 1985) p 67

[12] Siti Maryam (Ed) History of Islamic Civilization, p. 88

[13] W.Montgomery Watt, Islamic Political Thought Upheaval, p 72

[14] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Islamic History and Culture, p 95

[15] Ibid, p. 84-85.

[16] Philip.K.Hitti, Arab World, trans. Ushuluddin Hutagalung and ODP Sihombing (Bandung, Bandung Well, tt) h.85

[17] Harun Nasution, Seen From the various aspects of Islam, I, (Jakarta, UI Press, 1978), h.61

[18] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, History of Islamic Culture, h.83

[19] Siti Maryam, History of Islamic Civilization, h.88

[20] Ibid, h.92

[21] Ibid, h.91

[22] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, History and Culture, h.448

[23] A. Hasymy, History of Islamic Culture, (New York, the Crescent Star, 1975) h.151

[24] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Islamic History and Culture, h.95



[26] Ahmad Amin, Duha al-Islam. (Cairo, Maktabah Nahdah al, 1972) vol Ih262

[27] Hj.Musyrifah Sunanto, Classical Islamic History, (New York, Prenada Media, 2003) h.40

[28] Ahmad Amin, Duha al-Islam, h.264

[29] Hj.Musyrifah Sunanto, History of Classical Islam, h.42

[30] Harun Nasution, Islam Viewed from Various Aspects, h.62

[31] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Islamic History and Culture, h.111

[32] Ibid. H.112

[33] Ibid.h.114

[34] Ibid, h.115

[35] Ali Mas'udi, Muruj Adh Dzahab, vol 2, p 94

[36] Hasan Ibrahim Hasan, Islamic History and Culture, p. 121.

[37] Ibid. h.123

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