Friday, May 11, 2012

history and traditions of classification

History is the study of hadith penelurusuran is endless, it is evident that the hadith as evidence as proof of the transformation of science in Islam. This reality requires the scientists to examine the legality and validity of the hadith.

Hadith for Muslims after the Koran took second place in the context of Islamic law. Because, besides being the source of the teachings that are directly related to the necessity to obey Rasullullah Saw. Also because of its function as an explanatory (bayan) for phrases mujmal Qur'an, the absolute 'amm, and so on. Target end penkajian really focused on the science of hadith traditions honor, while others such as the sanad, the book serves as a collecting device for the maintenance of quoting texts and criticism [1].

Strategic role sanad (chain of history) as an affirmation of Muhammad bin Sirin (W.110 H) and Abdullah Mubarak (W.181 H) as giving legitimacy for the existence of honor as an integral part of Islamic teachings [2]. Sanad honor guard at the same time serve as historical evidence about the transmission of hadith (genealogy teacher) to the collector of hadith in question.

In the tradition of short papers, the authors investigated the critics tried to honor that tradition in the sense of honor as a matter of hadith (nafs al-hadith) which is a matter in which expressions contain certain meanings. This study will reveal how critics honor as proof of progress in the science of hadith search and find the validity of the hadith. For the objektifan study is also expected criticism and suggestions for improving this paper.

B. Critics understanding Matan

Kririk word in Arabic is often called naqd, criticism itself is meant to judge, compare, weigh [3]. Word in the bida critics interpret as an attempt to distinguish between the correct (original) and false (artificial or false).

The word honor or honor the language of al-ma means shalaha wa al-Arabi irtifa'a min (elevated land) in the terminology of honor has some definitions of terms that essentially mean the same thing that is material or lafadh tradition itself. On one of these definitions are very simple, for example, mentioned that the honor that is the end or purpose sanad (ghayah as-sanad). From this definition gives the sense that what is written after the genealogical chain of transmission, is honor tradition [4].

On the other definitions, such as saying by Ibn al-Jamaat mentioned, that honor is: ما ينتهي اليه السند من الكل م

"Something sanad end of the sentence where" [5]

Meanwhile, according to the ath-Thibi define honor are:

الفا ظ الحديث التئ تتقوم بها معا نيه

"Lafadh-lafadh tradition in which an ma'na-specific ma'na" [6]

The phrase "end of the sanad" showed understanding of the so-called honor (lafadh material hadith) that the writing in place after the sanad and after the narrator.

Definition is in line with the view of Ibn al-Athir al-Jazari (W.606.H), honor traditions that each element is composed of lafadh (text) and the elements of meaning (concept). [7]

C. Background Pentinganya Criticism of Hadith Matan

There are few studies of honor traditions, among them motivated by:

A. Religious motivation

2. Motivation History

3. Editing technical tradition

4. The combination of theme and concept of Tradition

D. Criticism of Hadith Matan criteria

Of the various books that became the source of reading and writing the source collection, all the writing of papers did not explain the methodological steps that must be done in honor traditions of research activities, what has been described by various scholars of hadith is very big opinion mamfaatnya to be used as material in order to formulate a step- methodological steps matan research traditions. Departing from this, this paper will try to ask methodological steps honor traditions of research activities, namely:

1.Penelitian honor to see the quality sanadnya

Examining the honor after researching sanad, the object can be viewed in terms of research, towns, sanad of hadith which has the same position, which are equally important in relation to the status investigated kehujahan traditions. In a sequence of research activities, research scholars of hadith precedence over research matan sanad of hadith.

Matan quality should be appropriate and not always in line with the quality sanadnya, the point is the quality of honor and the sanad of a Hadith is very varied. Diantanya sanadnya the existence of a sahih hadith, but the honor da'eef and vice versa. According to the scholars of hadith, a tradition that it was declared invalid if the chain of transmission quality and honor traditions are equally valid quality. Thus, his sanad of hadith is sahih and its honor is not valid, or conversely, its sanad da'eef and honor him, not stated as a sound hadith.

Examining the composition of which convey the same pronunciation different honor where honor is the study of differences in pronunciation, meaning that the differences in pronunciation to convey the same traditions that honor is due to the transmission of hadith transmission has occurred in the meaning of (ar-bil-ma'na riwayah) and also occur because of errors.

According to the scholars of hadith, the difference in pronunciation that do not result in differences in meaning, so long as his sanad are equally valid then it can be tolerated. [8]

The benchmark study matan (ma'ayir naqdil al-main) put forward by the clergy are not uniform. According to al-Khatib al-Bagdadi (w.463 H/1072 M), an honor that it was declared as Maqbul Hadith (authentic quality that is acceptable), if:

A. Not contrary to common sense

2. Not conflict with the Koran that has muhkam [9]

3. Not contrary to the traditions mutawatir

4. Not contrary to the practice that has become a consensus of the scholars of the past (the Salaf)

5. Not contrary to the arguments that have been certain; and

6. Sunday contrary to the tradition of quality to stronger-shahihannya

In honor of this study, should also be noted that the elements that must be met by a qualified matan valid, there are two kinds, namely to avoid shuzuz (clumsiness), and avoid 'illat (disabled), this means that in order to examine the towns, the second element should be the main reference. Because if syuzuz research and 'illat sanad of hadith on the research activity is expressed as a tough, then so does the research syuzuz and' illat the honor is not easily done.

2. Examining the composition of the Creator Matan

As mentioned in the discussion that goes by that one-on-one cause of differences in pronunciation to convey the same traditions that honor is due to the transmission of hadith narration convey the same place (ar-bil-ma'na riwayah). According to the scholars of hadith, the difference in pronunciation that do not result in differences in meaning, so long as sanadnya equally valid then it still can ditolensi.

Quite a lot of traditions that honor to convey the same sanad validity equally composed with a different pronunciation. For example the hadith about intentions, the tradition is in-takhrij the al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, at-Turmuzi, an-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah and Ahmad Ibn Hambal. The first transmitters of hadith it is' Umar bin al-Khattab. About the history of al-Bukhari hadith there are seven kinds, from the seventh kind of honor that no one is exactly the same arrangement of its pronunciation. 3 pronunciation as hadith quoted below:

A. Contained in Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of (the) Bad'ul Wahyi, sequence number 1 reads: عن عمر بن الخطا ب رضي الله عنه قال سمعت رسول الله ص - م يقول = انماالآعمال بالنيات وانما لكل أمرئ مانموى فمن كا نت هجر ته الى دنيا يصيبها فهجر ته الى ما فهجراليه

2. Contained in Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of (parts of) al-Anshor Manaqib, the order of chapter number 45, reads: عن عمر رضي الله عنه قال سمعت رسول الله ص - م يقول = الآعمال بالنيات فمن كا نت هجر ته الى دنيا يصيبهاأو امرأة يتزوجها فهجر ته الى ما فهجراليه ومن كان هجر ته الى الله ورسوله هجر ته الى الله ورسوله

3. Contained in Sahih al-Bukhari, Book of (parts of) al-hiyal, chapter sequence number 1, reads: عن عمر بن الخطا ب رضي الله عنه قال سمعت ا لنبي ص - م يقول = يا ايها الناس = انماالآعمال بالنيات وانما لكل أمرئ مانموى فمن كا نت هجر ته الى الله ور سو له فهجر ته الى الله ور سو له ومن هاجر الى دنيا يصيبهاأو امرأة يتزوجها فهجر ته الى ما فهجراليه

In the third honor was evident on pronunciation differences. Pronunciation differences are also found in four other honor that is narrated by al-Bukhari. In the honor of Muslims and other history there are also differences in the composition of pronunciation honor. [10]

From the description above can be seen that the difference in pronunciation is not only because of the significance of transmission, but transmission is possible because of the hadith in question has experienced an error and the error was not only experienced by the narrators are not siqah only, but occasionally by narrators who siqah [11] .

3. Examining the content of honor.

This method is used the method by comparing the content of honor that is consistent or not contrary to the terms of the arrangement that has been researched pronunciation, then the next step is examining the content of this honor because of the research needs to examine the content of honor and other arguments that have the same subject matter.

Comparing the content of honor that are inconsistent or appear to conflict is a reflection of the impossibility of prophetic traditions that conflict with the traditions of his own or the arguments of the Qur'an because what is expressed by the Prophet, whether in the form of Hadith and Qur'an are equally derived from God. [12 ]

In honor of hadith which mentions content appears to contradict it, the scholars of hadith did not agree. As most scholars mention the term al-Hadith al-Mukhtaliful, some mention the al-Mukhalataful-Hadith, but in general the scholars call the at-ta'arud.

The various traditions that seem contradictory (at-ta'arud) has compiled the books of scholars in particular. Scholar who pioneered the collection of activities that are al-Imam ash-Shafi'i in his work entitled Kitab al-Hadith al-Ikhtilafil. Imam ash-Shafi'i give an idea that might have honor, honor traditions that seem to contradict it contains the instructions that the honor of a global nature (al-Mujmal) and the other is detailed (al-Mufassar) and the other is specific (al -khass), as an eraser (al-mansukh) and possibly might have honor, honor is to be practiced.

Subsequently passed on by Imam Qutayba (w.278 H) with the title at-ta'wil al-Hadith al-Mukhtalifil and so on. But the scholars agreed that if there is a contradiction of the traditions that honor bertengan be "solved" so that the contradiction disappears.

Further concluded that such research takes natijah honor and argument. [13] When the study was to honor the inference that the only valid and da'eef get it, then the inference must be based on the research matan-argument argument is clear and the argument could be raised filed before or after the proposed natijah natijah. If the honor that was valid and researched its sanad is also valid, then the natijah mentioned that the tradition of authentic quality examined and if honor and sanad da'eef equally qualified, then the hadith which states that natijah examined and if qualified da'eef sanad distinct honor and quality, then the difference must be explained

C. Critical Issues and Examples Matan.

Sometimes the approach to starting a particular measure does not correspond to examine a particular honor, but the approach can be used even be used to honor the other. In honor of research practice is not easy, where there are several research matan factors that stand out as the cause of the difficulty of the study towns, diantanya:

· The transmission of the Creator

· The reference is used as one kind of approach not only

· The background incidence of manual tradition is not always easy to know

· The content of the instructions hadith related matters dimension "Supra-Rational"

· There are still rare books that specifically discuss the research honor traditions. [14]

According to Dr. Salahuddin Ahmad ibn al-Adlabi the essay book entitled Methodology Criticism of Hadith Matan, he argues that there are four critical of the methodology in honor traditions, which are:

A. Critics of the transmission as opposed to the Qur'an al-Karim.

Allah says: واذا تتلى عليهم ايا تنا بينات قال الذين لايرجعون لقاء ناائت بقران غير هذا أو أبدله قل مايكون لي أن أبدله من تلقاء نفسي ان اتبع الا مايوحى الي [15] اني أخاف ان عصيت ربي عذاب غظيم

Meaning: And when read to them Our signs are real, the people who do not expect the meeting with Us say: "Bring Alqur

an other than this or change. "Say: It is not for me to change it of my own. I do not follow from what was revealed to me. Surely if disobey my Lord I fear the torment of a large (Resurrection).

If we find a hadith that contradicts the Qur'an, then there are two points of view that we can give: first, from the point wurud, because the Koran is a wholly-Wurud qath'i al. Second, from the point of al-Quran and Hadith dalalah sometimes caused qath'i dalalah and al-al-dalalah dhanni. To ensure there is disagreement between the texts both the Qur'an and hadith texts must not contain equally likely takwil because if one of them had been in the takwil or both then it is further possible to integrate (al-jam'u), it shows no disagreement and there is no reason to reject the hadith. [16]

Imam Muslim narrated from al-Hakam ibn Mu'awiya Ibn-Sulami, he said, I have a female slave who served mengembala goats around Uhud and al-Juwaniyah. "One day I see him, there was a lion that ate one of the goat-herds. I was human, who can be angry as they are. It's just that I hit him hard. Then I came to Rasulllah Saw. I said," O Messenger how do I memerdekakannya? "He said:" Bring him here. "Then I come up with it. He later asked him:" Where is Allah? "He menjawad: In the sky", he bertannya again: Who are you? "he replied:" You are the Messenger . He said: "Well, merdekakan him, because he is a believer.

Imam Malik Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasha'i, all narrated by the editor of the same question: "Where is God"? Researchers were surprised by the question Rasululllah Saw the slave woman with the words: "which God?", How this is in line with the word of Allah: "How can there is nothing to Him? It is assumed direction and a place for God Almighty, which was intended by the Prophet. But he wanted to test a person with a claim about two Shahadah in which are the creed of monotheism, while history shows that belief in a pagan belief that Allah is in heaven-a form of faith in the pagan Arabs. [17]

2.Kritik of history-history as opposed to the Hadith and Sirah Nabawiyah valid

If history is going to reject a mar'fu to the Prophet, because of conflict with other traditions, two requirements must be met which include: first, there is no possibility of combining (al-jam'u), but if made possible by the integration between kedunya without forcing themselves, it is necessary to reject one of them and if such disagreement is not possible then it must be combined Legal Affairs Committee. Second, the hadith which serve as the basis for rejecting another tradition to the contrary must be mutawatir status. Emphasize this requirement by Ibn Hajar in al-Ala Ifshah Nukat Ibn al-Salah.

Narrations pertaining to the history of Arab belly full hearing poetry, as in riwayatkan by al-Bukhari from Ibn 'Umar from the Prophet he said: لآن يمتلئ جوف رجل قيحأ خير له من أن يمتلئ شعر

It means: "Verily, the stomach of one of you is full of pus is much better for him than full of poetry". [18]

Al-Bukhari, Muslim, and at-Tirmidhi also narrated from Abu Hurairah, he said: Allah's Apostle, said: "It's one of the stomach is full of pus that you attack him much better than full of poetry. Based on these traditions, we find that the group who hated poetry, and even hatred that spread to the literature, because fooled by lahiriyahnya meaning, but the tradition is clearly contrary to other narrations are many in number.

3. Critics of the history-history as opposed to Reason, Sense and History.



O Hadith Nabawi certainly contrary to reason, then we need to know that human reason is different, then different also accept or reject some of tradition. For example, the honor is in the books and mushannaf, as Ibn Majah narrated from Abdullah ibn 'Amr, said: I heard Allah's Apostle said: "Noah fasted Dahr (full year) except for the year Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Ibn Majah narrated back , that the Prophet, berwudlu, then he said: "This is wudluku and wudlunya were before me, and my beloved wudlunya, Ibrahim

The above Hadith it is impossible to sustain the two-word history of Allah: "He has been hinting to you about what religion has diwasiatkan him on Noah and what have we wasiatkan to Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, namely: Establish the religion and do not be broken to- sides of it. Very hard for unbelievers to the faith that you call upon Him. Allah's religion is interesting to those who desired Him and give clues (His religion) who returned (to Him ". (QS.Al- Shura: 13). [19]

4. Criticism of The traditions of the Prophet's words are not Resemble

Sometimes the narrators from the Prophet, not contrary to the texts (text) Qur'an or Sunnah is valid, reason, sense (true) or history, but history is not like the words of prophecy, then we can not accept. As Ibn Qayyim mentions, there are some false hadiths which can be determined without looking sanad, such as those of Ai Hurairah narrated that: "Whoever prayed Maghrib six rak'ahs, not to speak with nothing in between the sixth rak'ah, then worship him equal worship for twelve years. [20]
Some examples of his Hadith Matan da'eef

In a hadith narrated by Muslim, Ad-Darimi, and Ahmad stated:

عن أبى سعيد الخدري أن رسو ل االله ص. م. قال ولا تكتبوا عنى ومن كتب عنى غير القران فليمحمه) رواه مسلم والدرمى واحمد (

Hadith of Abu Sa'id al-Khudri that the Prophet has said: 'Do not write (what comes) from me and those who have written of me other than the Koran, then let him erase it.

The above Hadith appear to conflict with the narratives of al-Bukhari, Muslim, and Abu Daud, which reads:

عن أبى هريرة عن النبي ص. م ........ قال: اكتبو الآ بى شا ه

) رواهالبخارى مسلم وابوداود (

 Hadith of Abu Hurairah, the Prophet ....... Saw, She besabda (to his Companions): Write down (my sermon earlier) for Abu Shah (who had been asked to write it). 

- Hadith of the Ulama-Umara

Nu'aim narrated by Imam al-Isfahani (w.430 H) in his book al-Auliya Hilyah and Imam Ibn 'Abd al-Al-Barr (w.463 H) in his book Jami' Bayan al-'Ilm wa Fadhilah then dinukilkan by Imam al-Ghazali (w.505 H). As the context of the hadith as follows: صنفا ن من أ متي اذا صلحا صلح الناس واذا فسدا فسدالناساالأ مرأء والعلما ء

Falsity of this tradition is the source of a narrator in the sanad was named Muhammad ibn Ziyad al-Yasykuri, according to Imam Ahmad bin Hambal, Imam Yahya bin Ma'in, al-Darulqutni, Abu Zur'ah and others, Muhammad Ziyad is Kadzdzab ( liar). In honor of this tradition is also weak, because the tradition is to make a dichotomy between the Ulama and Umara is a matter that needs to be reassessed, because it is contrary to contrary to the tradition of the Prophet Muhammad himself and his successors (al-Khulafah al-Rashidun), where their addition to scholars as well as Umara. [21]

- Hadith of the World As Will Work To Live Forever

اعمل لدنياك كأ نك تعيش أبدا واعمل الأ خرتك كأ نك تموت غدا

The above Hadith by Shaykh Muhammad Nasir al-Din al-Albani, according to tradition he was the editor does not have a sanad (la ashla lah) that is not derived from the Prophet (Mar'fu), as Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim al-' Amiri al -Ghazzi in his book al-Jidd al-Bayan fi Hatsis bil Ma laisa Hadith, the book contains about a claim as a tradition but it's not tradition, in that, he did not enter it. [22]


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References and footnote
Reading List



Abu Dawud, Sunan Abi Daud. Egypt: Maktabah Tijariah Kubra, 1951



Ali Sami al-Nasyar, nasy'at al-Fikr al-Falsafi fi al-Islam, (Cairo: Dar al-Ma'rif, 1981)



Ali Mustafa Yaqaub, Troubled hadith. Press Paradise: New York, 2003



________________, Criticism of Hadith. Paradise Library: New York, 2004



Al-Suyuti, al-Jami 'al-shagir, I: h.74; Abu Dawud, Sunan Abi Daud, IV.



Al-Khatib, al-Sunnah al-Tadwin qabl (. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1993)



Al-Munawwar. Said Agil Hussein, Science Hadis.cet.1 London: Style Media Pratama, 1996



Semi Atar, Literary Criticism. (London: Space, 1987



Ministry of Religious Affairs, al-Quran and its translation (Jakarta, project pengandaan holy book, 1982).



Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, fath al-Basri, v:



Ibn al-Jawzi, al-maudhu 'at, III



Ibn Arab.Beirut; Darlisan al-Arab, et), h.434-435



Ibn al-Athir, al-Gharib Nihayah fi al-Hadith wa al-Atsar. (Egypt: Isa al-Baki.1963)



Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, al-al-Muttashirah Dural (Beirut,: Dar al-al-Scientific Pole, 1988),



M.Azhami, manhaj al-naqd,



Muslim ibn al-Hajaj, Muqoddimah Muslim.Jilid 51 Sahih: al-al-Muhaddisin Jawabi



M.Thaher al-Jawati, Juhud Muhaddisinti al-Hadith al-naqdi matni. (Tunusia: Muassasah 'Abd-Karim, 1986)



Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muqaddimah al-Jami 'as-Sahih volumes, I. (Egypt: Isa al-Bawi wa Syarakah, 1955)



Nashiruddin al-Albani, al-Ahadist Genealogy Dha'ifah wa al-al-Maudhu'ah (Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, tt



Ramli Abdul Wahid, the science of Hadith Studies (London dream library: 2005



Syuhudi Ismail, Research Methodology Nabi.cet.1.Jakarta tradition: Crescent Star, 1992



Salahuddin Ahmad Ibn al-Adlabi, Hadis.Gaya Matan Media Criticism Methodology Primary: New York, 2004



Footnote

[1] M.Thaher al-Jawati, Juhud Muhaddisinti al-Hadith al-naqdi matni (Tunusia: Muassasah 'Abd-Karim, 1986), h.6



[2] Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muqaddimah al-Jami 'as-Sahih volumes, I. (Egypt: Isa al-Bawi wa Syarakah, 1955), h.14-15



[3] Semi Atar, Literary Criticism (London: Space, 1987), p.7



[4] Ibn Mansur, Lisan al-Arab (Beirut: al-Arab Darlisan, et), h.434-435



[5] Ibid



[6] Ramli Abdul Wahid, the science of Hadith Studies, (ideal library, bandung: 2005), h.25



[7] Ibn al-Athir, al-Gharib Nihayah fi al-Hadith wa al-Atsar (Egypt: Isa al-Baki.1963), HI: 4



[8] M.Syuhudi Ismail, Nabi.cet.1 Hadith Methodology Research (New York: Crescent Star, 1992), h.122-141



[9] Ibid, p. 123. muhkam is meant by the term in this case is a legal provision that has been fixed; there are scholars who muhkam enter into one paragraph, one sense-dalalah qat'iyud)



[10] Ismail, Research Methodology, h.131-132



[11] Salahuddin Ibn Ahmad al-Adlabi, Methodology Criticism of Hadith Matan (Style Media Pratama), h.145. Syadz Hadith is a Hadith narrated by different narrators siqah with a history of people who tsiqah dikarena more numerous or more powerful hafalannya



[12] Ibid., Syad Hadith is a Hadith narrated by different narrators siqah history siqah because people are more numerous or more powerful memory. The comparison referred to as "mahfudh".



[13] Ismail, Research Methodology, p. 142-146



[14] Ibid, h.130



[15] Foundation Organizers Translator / Interpretation of the Qur'an, the Qur'an and the translation (Jakarta, 1971), h



[16] Ahmad al-Adlabi, Methodology Criticism, h.210







[17] Ibid, h.211-212



[18] Ibid, h.236



[19] Ibid, h.254-255



[20] Ibid, h.270-271



[21] Ali Mustafa Yaqaub, hadith Troubled Paradise Press, 2003), h.13-16



[22] Ibid, h.55-56

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