Saturday, May 12, 2012

Hadith NOW UNTIL AFTER DAYS OF FRIENDS

History of the Hadith is often the subject of some controversy among Muslims and non Muslims. There are some who refuse to accept the authenticity of the hadith of the Prophet because they argue that the Hadith of the Prophet written and recorded two centuries after the death of the Prophet Muhammad, a rather long period of time passed so can lead to changes and shifts in meaning lafazh and traditions are concerned. They are simply based on assumptions of rational thought and do not see and examine the various arguments that can be accepted by Islamic Shari'a and did not examine and review the books of history and tradition penulisn correctly.

While on the other hand there are some people who take it for granted textual traditions of the Prophet without regard to the validity and ketidaksahihannya. In this paper the authors attempt a brief attempt to suggest the true explanation of the writing and the books of Hadith of the Prophet after the beginning of the century into two H until the 7th century to the present H.

B. Writing and Bookkeeping officially Hadith (Century 2 H)

In this period the Prophet hadith were written and collected officially. The Caliph who ruled at the time was Umar ibn Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad dynasty. Umar ibn Abdul Aziz has an interest in writing and the leadership to officially record the Hadith, [1] it is didadasarkan on some history, Umar ibn Abdul Aziz worried about the disappearance and death of the scholars of Hadith Hadith. [2] The friends have been scattered in various area, even not a few who had died. While the hadith are in their breasts are not necessarily all of them had passed on to the next generation. Hence, the famous caliph wara 'and taqwa is seeking the collection and writing of Hadith.

There is a difference in the collection of Hadith by the Qur'an. Tradition has a much longer period of about three centuries than the Koran which requires only relatively short time. [3] The meaning here is the hadith collection periodeisasi phases which have traveled and experienced in the history of coaching and development of the Hadith, since the Messenger of Allah was live up to the realization of the books of Hadith that can be seen today. [4]

In the reign of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, Islam already extends to regions which certainly understanding and their thinking, especially about Islam itself is the Hadith. Khalifah took the initiative to collect hadith is due to the widespread development of Islam that most people who are new converts to Islam took a teaching based on the traditions of the Prophet. Besides the political turmoil that occurred among Muslims, there are some groups that try to distort the words of the Messenger of Allah that will eventually destroy the purity of the teachings of Islam itself. Therefore, Umar ibn Abdul Aziz has developed a vigorous movement in order to disseminate propaganda Islamiyah. [5]

According to al-Khathib Ajjaj books of Hadith that the activities have been initiated by his father the Caliph Umar, Abdul Aziz who was then serving as governor of Egypt. However, because of his position as governor of the coverage is not comprehensive, therefore, forwarded by the Caliph Umar once appointed. Surely pengkodifikasian Hadith so quickly expanded into areas controlled by the governor and immediately gave instructions to write and collect the Hadith that there are distributed to friends and so on. So also he sent scholars to collect the traditions of the Prophet, the hadith is credible tradition that has been reported by people who have distanced themselves from the nature of sin and piety. [6]

If we examine the scientific capabilities of Muslims, in fact has allowed them to do the writing of the hadiths of the Prophet. [7] But the dominant opinion among scholars and scientists is that the hadith was only spread by word of mouth until the end of the first century . We need to know that the love of and compliance with the companions of the Prophet was so deep, so write a treatise in Islamic teachings, they do it verbally as the Prophet did with them. Such conditions are not directly taught us that it is also a portion of religious adherence. [8]

The view of the orientalists on the first writing of Hadith by al-Zuhri on the orders of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz is a fake. Because they refer to the fiqh of hadith in the view of the orientalists appear until after the time of Umar ibn Abdul Aziz. [9] This opinion is certainly not learn about the history of early Islam, which the Prophet expressions that have not been written only by the tongue is considered as a casual greeting. And if we refer to the notion of Hadith itself that everything is born from the behavior of the Prophet as a whole it is a material that becomes the law or subject to subsequent generations. Associated with the understanding that the book of al-Muwatta 'by ibn Malik is one book that records the Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad and the early scholars in Medina, the fatwa that adheres to these terms, so the book is arranged according to a pattern that begins with atsar and then a new fatwa which contains an explanation- explanation of the law relating to the words, deeds of the Prophet and the companions of the legal opinion, as well as the fatwa scholars tabi'in


C. Period of Purification and Writing Improvement Hadith (Century 3 H)

According to the Hadith, which is the main problem that caused delays of up to one hundred years in the books of Hadith is due simply to follow the popular opinion among them without examining the sources that show that the Hadith has been recorded at an earlier period. [10] As for other reasons why the tradition has not been compiled and posted on the friend and tabi'in due to the prohibition of the Prophet in Saheeh Muslim, fear will mix with the Koran, others because they are very strong rote and they are also intelligent, as well as generally they can not write. Only in the late tabi'in, Hadith of the Prophet composed and recorded.

The period of purification and refinement of hadith took place since the reign of al-Ma'mun to the early reign of Caliph al-Muqtadir Abbasid dynasty. Hadith scholars of Hadith focused on the existence of maintenance, especially the purity of the Hadith the Holy Prophet, in anticipation of their activities are increasingly widespread forgery of hadith. [11] In any religion for its adherents, of course, vary widely in the practice of teaching itself. This is in accordance with the conditions of the extent of their understanding of religion and the influence that can change the mindset of a person to be devout, fanatical, or indifferent. Development of science has already begun in the 2nd century with the birth of the mujtahid Imams in various fields of jurisprudence in the science of kalam. Disputes and differences of opinion among the imams mujtahids become treasures of science are constantly being developed and appreciated, but that's not understood by the followers of the imam. Due to factors like their own right and winning the opinion of other scholars considered incorrect. Characteristic of those fanatics who ultimately created the fake hadith to support his school and the school dropped his opponent.

Hadith counterfeiting activities experienced a very long time, since the reign of al-Ma'mun, al-Mu'tasim and Wastiq, which they strongly support the Mu'tazilites. Momentum is also exploited by the opposition sects infidels who were hostile to Islam zindiq The traditions of creating false and misleading the Muslims and do not miss the author's story is also used setuasi. Mu'tazilah scholars not only affects the mind to act tough against the caliph Hadith expert, even release their vituperation and scorn to the experts of hadith and hadith experts accused the stupid and ignorant. [12]

Therefore, the clergy sought to preserve the form of hadith can be maintained and perpetuated by selecting one course after another hadith that has been entered or a new discovery that the relationship could be accounted for as well as its accuracy is really coming from the Prophet. So the scholars visited the affected areas to meet the narrators of Hadith that far from the city center. Among them was Imam Bukhari who has been traveling for 16 years to visit the city of Mecca, Medina and other cities. So they also do a leaning to the classification of Hadith of the Prophet (marfu '), and a leaning to the Companions (mawquf), and a leaning to tabi'in (maqthu'), as well as the selection of the Hadith Sahih Hadith, Hasan, and Da'eef .

The form of the preparation of the Hadith books in this period are:

A. Sahih, this book collects only Sahih hadith, while not incorporated into it Saheeh, no. Included in the book of hadeeth is Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.

2. Book of Sunan, in this book other than the traditions found Saheeh, also found that quality Da'eef Hadith on condition of not too weak and not evil. Included in this book Sunan Abi Dawud, among others, Sunan at Turmudzi, Sunan al-Nasa'i and Sunan ibn Majah.

3. Book Musnad, was found in the book of hadith compiled by order of the tribes, like the Bani Hashim precedence over the other, there are other such letters in order of hijaiyah and so forth. Which includes the book is the Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. The third preparation of the Hadith book form is a requirement for selection that is sourced or pure Hadith of the Prophet Muhammad with a sanad and the narrators may be justified, the Hadith is the Hadith otentesitas can be used as a source of law and proof as well.

D. Period of maintenance, demolition and the addition of the writing of Hadith (Ages 4 s / d 7 H)

Before the arrival of Islam, the Arabs are not known for its ability to read and write, so they are better known as the unlettered people (can not read and write). However, this does not mean that among them there is no one who can write and read. This situation is just as characteristic of their state. History has recorded that the number of people among them who could read and write, Adiy bin Zaid al-Abbay (d. 35 before moving), for example, have learned to write to the master, and was among the first to be able to write Arabic addressed to Khusraw. Some Jews also teach the children in Madinah Arabic writing. The city of Mecca with the trade center before the prophetic witness of the writers and people who mempu read. [13]

In the aftermath of a friend of Hadith collection is a must since the 2nd century, because it is based on the widespread development of Islam and the need for legal references are easy to get arguments. So maintenance is the responsibility of the hadith of the rulers at that time. Starting from the caliph al-Muqtadir to the al-Mu'tashim, although the rule of Islam has begun to weaken in the 7th century due to attacks Holagu grandson of Genghis Khan Khan, but the activities of the scholars of Hadith in order memeliharannya and develop ongoing as in the previous period. It's just not as much as the Hadith compiled by the previous period. As for the books of Hadith compiled are:

A. Al-Saheeh, by ibn Khujaimah (313 H)

2. Al-Anwa'wa al-Taqsim, by ibn Hibban (354 H).

3. Al-Musnad, by Abu Awaanah (316 H).

4. Al-Muntaqa, by ibn Jarud.

5. Al-Muhtarah, by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Maqdisi. [14]

The books on top of a reference material for the scholars of Hadith, and learn, memorize and examine and investigate the sanad-sanadnya. The next set of new books with the aim of nurturing, discipline and raise sanad and matannya interconnected and that have been included separately in the books that have been around them. [15]

As for other forms of preparation of the Hadith books in this period to introduce the new system, namely:

A. Book Athraf, in the book is its constituent part of the honor just to mention a particular Hadith then describes the sanad of honor, both sanad from the book of Hadith quoted matannya or from other books.

2. Book Mustakhraj, this book contains matan Hadith narrated by Bukhari or Muslim, or both or the other, and the subsequent preparation of this book of Hadith narrated by sanadnya honor itself.

3. Book Mustadrak, this book collects The traditions that have terms Bukhari and Muslim, or who has one of the requirements of both.

4. The book Jami ', this book collects hadith contained in the books that already exist, such as:

a. That collect hadith saheeh Bukhari and Muslim.
b. That collect hadith from al-Sitta al-Pole.
c. Accumulating the hadith of the Prophet of various books of Hadith.

E. Pensyarahan, accumulation, pentakhiran, and discussion of Hadith (Ages 7 H s / d now)

A. Hadith transmission activities

Starting from a military conquest by the Tartars of the Abbasid rule was subsequently revived by the Mamluk dynasty after the Mongols conquered nation. However, the Mamluks had a specific intent to membai'at caliph. Is merely a symbol for other Islamic regions to recognize the government of Egypt as a center of Islam that eventually people will submit to Egypt as an Islamic government, after it was born the recognition of the Mamluk dynasty as the ruler of the Islamic world. After the pass, the power of the Mamluk dynasty had begun receding, go to the centuries-8 H, Usman Kajuk founded the kingdom in the heritage of Bani Seljuk Turks in Central Asia as he conquered the small kingdoms that exist and further build Daulah disekirnya Utsmaniah based in Turkey. After conquering Constantinople and Egypt (the collapse of the Abbasid Caliph), the Islamic power centers Switch to Constantinople in the 13th century H, Egypt, led by Muhammad Ali began to rise to restore the glory of Egypt's past. But Europe grew stronger over the world, they gradually begin to master the areas of Islam, so that in the 19th century AD until the 20th century AD almost all Islamic lands colonized by Europeans. Kembangkitan return new Muslims began in the mid-20th century AD

In line with the Islamic state above, the transmission of Hadith in this period is mostly done by ijazahi and mukatabah. [16] Few of the scholars of Hadith in this period did the narration of Hadith as is done by rote Mutakaddimin scholars, among them:

Al-'Iraqi (d. 806 AH / 1404 AD). He succeeded in memorizing the hadith mendektekan assembly 400 since the year 796 AH / 1394 AD, and wrote several books of Hadith.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852 AH / 1448 AD), a hadith penghafal unparalleled in his time. He has mendektekan Hadith to the 1000 assembly and wrote a number of books relating to the Hadith.
Al-Sakhawi (d. 902 AH / 1497 AD), he was a disciple of Ibn Hajar, who has mendektekan Hadith to the 1000 assembly and write a book. [17]

At this time, the scholars of hadith in general studied the books of Hadith that already exist and further develop it and distill them to produce the types of works such as books Sharh, Mukhtasar, Zawa'id, Takhrij and so forth. Certainly not independent of the Hadith in the present reviewer, in addition to reviewing Matan (content) can be used as a tradition and literature references on the new generation and not just accept that the Hadith is authentic or not authentic. However, we have gained a basic knowledge to find and ensure the operation causes the Hadith, which is certainly not independent of the journey to save the Hadiths of the people who want menyelewengkannya.

In this case we can not be separated from science-Ruwah Tarikhi'r are talking about the happenings of the narrator of Hadith is concerned both with age and the date when they were born, where their domicile and when they receive a Hadith from their teachers. [18]

2. Form of the preparation of the Hadith books

In this period, generally the hadith scholars studied the books of Hadith that already exist, then develops and summarizes it thus becomes a work as follows:

a. The book Sharh. Which is the book that includes a description and explanation of the content of the individual books of Hadith and its relation to other arguments derived from the Koran, the Hadith, or the rules of Personality 'other. [19] Among the examples is:
Fath al-Bari, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, ie Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari.
Al-Minhaj, qleh al-Nawawi, who mensyarahkan Sahih Muslim.
'Aun al-Ma'bud, by Shams al-Haq al-Azhim al-Abadi, Sharh Sunan Abu Dawud.
b. Book Mukhtasar. Which is the book that contains a summary of a book of Hadith, such as Mukhtasar Saheeh Muslim, by Muhammad al-Baqi abd fu'ad.

c. Book Zawa'id. Which is the book that collects The traditions of certain books, which is not certain other books. Among the examples is Zawa'id al-Sunan al-Kubra, by al-Bushiri, which includes the traditions history of al-Bayhaqi that are not contained in the al-al-Sitta Pole.

d. Book of instructions (code index) Hadith. Namely, a book of handy hints that facilitate the search for honor Hadith on certain books. For example, Kunuz Miftah al-Sunnah, by AJ Wensinck, which translated into Arabic by M. Fu'ad 'Abd al-Baqi.

e. Book Takhrij. Which is the book that explains the decision places hadith which contains in particular the book and explains the quality. Examples are, Takhrij ahadith al-Ihya ', by Al-' Iraqi. The book is to takhrij hadith contained in the book Ihya '' Ulum al-Din of Imam al-Ghazali's work.

f. The book Jami '. Which is the book that collects The traditions of the various books of Hadith, such as al-Lu'lu 'wa al-Marjan, the work of Muhammad al-Baqi fu'ad. This book collects hadith Bukhari and Muslim.

g. Books that discuss specific issues, such as legal issues. For example, al-Maram Bulugh min fair al-Hakam, by Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani and hadith collections of the Law by TM-Shiddiqy Hasbi Ash. [20]

Given the great works of hadith experts, it can be easier for this generation in the study and mentelusuri The traditions that exist now, so it can know the quality of the hadith, and shy away from the practice of the weak hadith.

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References and footnote
REFERENCES

Azami, MM Hadith Nabawi and History Kodifikasinya. London: Eden Press, 1994.
Hasan, Ibrahim. Islamic History and Culture. New York: Kalam Noble, 2003.
Ismail, Shubudi. Introduction to the Science of Hadith. London: Space, 1991.
Nata, Abuddin. Qur'an and the Hadith. New York: RajaGrafindo Persada, 1996.
Qathtan, Manna '. Mabahis Fi Ulumil Hadis, trans. Mifdhol Abdurrahman, Introduction to the Science of Hadith Studies. New York: Al-Kausar, 2005.
Qindil, Mun'im. Salih lives of people. London: Ash Shifa '.
Rahman, Farhur. Ikhtishar Mushthalul Hadith. New York: Alma'arif, 1974.
Salih, Shubhi. 'Ulum al-Hadith wa Mushthalahuh. Lebanon: Dar al-'Ilm al-Malayin, 1977.
Shiddiqy, M. Hasbi. History of Hadith. New York: Crescent Star, 1988.
Yuslem, Nawir. Ulumul Hadith. New York: Pearl Widya Resources, 2001.

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