Friday, May 11, 2012

Hadith da'eef

Da'eef word in language is the opposite of al-Qowiy, which means weak, this is the Hadith Hadith da'eef mardud, the Hadith that diolak and can not be used as proof or argument in a legal setting. While Imam Ibn cashier da'eef define the Hadith Hadith - Hadith there are no properties to it Saheeh and the properties of Hasan  Hadith when the terms of kehujjahannya can be divided into two namely Maqbul and mardud. Maqbul traditions are traditions that can be accepted and used as evidence, while mardud traditions are traditions that can not be used as evidence. That led to a tradition becomes mardud are defects in the sanad or honor. Mardud Hadith which is divided to two kinds of traditions and traditions da'eef maudhu '.  This paper will examine the hadiths about da'eef, both definitions, the various traditions da'eef and so on.

B. Definition and Criteria Hadith da'eef
Da'eef word in language is the opposite of al-Qowiy, which means weak, this is the Hadith Hadith da'eef mardud, the Hadith that diolak and can not be used as proof or argument in a legal setting. [1] [1] As some scholars of Hadith defines da'eef as follows: Imam Ibn Abi Amar Salah da'eef Hadith defines as follows:
"Every Hadith-Hadith who is not her nature nor the Hadith Sahih properties the Hasan Hadith is called Hadith da'eef him." [1] [2]

While the cashier define Hadith Imam Ibn da'eef the Hadith - the Hadith that does not appear to him Saheeh properties and the properties of Hasan ". [1] [3] Imam Hafiz al-Mas'udi Haan gives the definition of Hadith Hadith da'eef as a loss of one condition or more of the Hadith Sahih or Hasan Hadith. "[1] [4]

From the definition above can be concluded that the Hadith is the Hadith da'eef insufficient and hasan Saheeh requirements both in terms of sanad and matannya, the lower strength compared with the Hadith and the Saheeh Hadith Hasan.

From the above conclusion can also dambinn essence that Hadith da'eef criteria are:
A. disconnection between a narrator with the other narrators in the sanad of the Hadith, which should be continued.
2. there are defects in the self seoang Hadith narrators or the honor of it.
From both these criteria can be described criteria da'eef kedhoifan of the Hadith.

C. Various Kinds of hadith da'eef
Hadith types da'eef very much and not enough when described as a whole dalammakalah this, for the writer is trying to sort out into two kinds of Hadith da'eef therefore why, namely:
a. Caused by the breaking of traditions da'eef Sanad.
Hadith Mursal
Mursal Hadith is a Hadith that dimarfu'kan (appointed) by a tabi'i the Messenger of Allah, whether it be words, actions and taqrir, be it large or small Tabi'i.
Definitions such as these are widely used by scholars of Hadith, they just do not give the line between small and large tabi'i. But there are also skillful scholar of Hadith traditions that impose limits only on marfu'kan Mursal to tabi'i tabi'i large because of the narration is a friend and the Hadith to tabi'i small dimarfu'kan including Munqoti Hadith '.
Etymologically, this Mursal Hadith is expressed in the language of isim maf'ul athlaqa arsala meaning, which is releasing and freeing. In terms Mursal is a Hadith Hadith Hadith Mursal is a fall from the end sanadnya, a narrator after tabi'i. Purpose of the definition above can be dipaham that a tabi'i says the Prophet said so, den, etc., while it clearly does not meet Tabi'i the Prophet. In this case Tabi'i tersbut eliminate the generation of an intermediary between the companions saw the tabi'i Rasulullahh.
as an example of this is Mursal Hadith:
"Hadith narrated by Muslim in the book Shahihnya on the" sale "(the book of al-Buyu ') he said," has told me Muhammad ibn Rafi', has told us Hujjain, had told us al-Layth, from Uqail from Ibn Shihab from Ibn Ibn Ssaid Musayyab, that the Messenger of Allah forbade selling dates are still to be cult, with dates that have been dried. "

Said bin Musayyab is a great tabi'i. He narrated this hadith without mentioning the narrator (a friend) who became an intermediary between himself and the Prophet. In this case Ibn Musyayyab had to abort the final of the narrators is a friend. It could be other than a friend digugurkannya there are also other tabi'i digugurkannya.

Classification of Hadith Mursal
As iterangkan that the Hadith is the Hadith that way Mursal sanadnya abort the last narrator is a friend who immediately accept the Hadith of the Prophet. Diitinjau in terms of who abort and of its properties, then the Hadith Mursal consists of three parts:

A. Mursal Shahabi, namely: Preaching friend leaning against the Messenger of Allah, but he did not hear or see for himself what he preached, because the Prophet was still alive when he was little atauu backward conversion to Islam. [1] [5] Hadith shahabi Mursal is not disputed When all transmitters in sanadnya included in the category of fair, so kemajhulannya not be negative.
2. Mursal silent 'ie: the Hadith narrated by tabi'i but tabi'i who narrated the Hadith contemporary of friends but never heard or witnessed the Hadith directly from the Prophet. [1] [6]
3. Mursal Jali, that is: if penggugurannya performed by narrator (tabi'i) can be seen clearly sekalii by the public, that renders the person has never been a contemporary of those who digugurkannya or who received the news directly from the Prophet. [1] [7]
Hadith Munqati '
Munqati word 'is ism inqata'a maf'ul of meaning is lost, the term hadith Munqati' This is a Hadith that killed him a narrator or a narrator mentioned to him that are not clear.
Various kind of abortion (Inqita ')
A. Narrators who narrated the Hadith clearly be known to his contemporaries not to the teachers who gave him the Hadith.
2. with vague known only to qualified persons only. Diketahuii with recourse to the excess of a narrator or more in the Hadith of others. [1] [8]
Another Hadith mentions Munqati definition 'is that the hadith narrators sanadnya a fall in one place or more or a narrator who is mentioned therein gmubham. In terms of the death of the narrators, it is the same Hadith if Hadith Mursal only limited attempts to discuss the death of a friend Mursal, while the Hadith Munqati 'there is no such limitation. So if there is a death of a good narrator at the beginning, middle or end of a Hadith is called Hadith Munqati him '. [1] [9]

3. Hadith Mudallas
ism maf'ul mudallas word is darii dallasa meaning dark or blend with the dark. According to the science of Hadith is the Hadith narrated Mudallas a living person narrator of his contemporaries, but he never met anyone who diriwayatkannya and did not hear her because of the vagueness of listening ". [1] [10]

4. Hadith Mu'addhal
Mu'addhal word means to hide something into something mysterious or problematic. In the language according to the science of hadith, Hadith Mu'addhal is Traditions that fall from two or more SCARA sanadnya consecutive sanda good from the start, middle or end sanad. [1] [11] in the hadith is among the tabi'in mursalkan by nature. This hadith is the same or even lower than Munqati Hadith '. Just from the ugliness of its quality, if kemunqoti'annya more than one place.

5. Hadith Mu'allaq
the language is Mu'allaq maf'ul ism of the word 'meaning alaqa hang something on something else so that it becomes dependent "while according to the terms of the science of Hadith, traditions Mu'allaq is something that has killed one or more transmitters in a row of sanad early death of both fixed or not. [1] [12]
In other literature mentioned Hadith Hadith Mu'allaq is being removed from the initial sanadnya a narrator in a row ".

b. Hadith da'eef the narrator in terms of disability.
In terms of admissibility of a Hadith to be used as proof the hadith, in principle, divided to two parts of the Hadith Hadith Maqbul Maqbul which is Hadith Sahih and Hasan Hadith Hadith while the second was the Tradition da'eef mardud and all that stuff.
Because defects in the narrators of this hadith da'eef both in terms of honor and justice sanadnya caused by transmitters, religion tau tau ​​keelitiannya occasion, but it is also due to the dissolution sanad narrators or aborted or not met each other between the brothers with the others. In this Hadith da'eef the terms of the various narrators are divided as follows:

A. Mudha'af Hadith.
That Hadith is not agreed kedhaifannya. As an expert judge hadith contain kedhaifan, both in the sanad and matannya, and others say it stronger but more powerful kedhaifannya assessment. Ibn al-Jaui is the person who first melakkukan sorting of this kind of Hadith.

2. Hadith Matruk
Hadith is a Hadith that solitary matruk in narration and narrated by a man who falsely accused in the transmission of Hadith, the Hadith Nabawi, or often lie in the conversation or obvious wickedness, through deeds or words, and often wrong or forget. For example Hadith Amr bin Jabir al-Samar from Jafiy.

The meaning of the accused lies dengnan narrator is a narrator who is always lying in the talks, but has not been proven that he lied in making tradition. As for those who lie beyond making periwayatannya Hadith rejected.

3. Munkar hadith.
Munkar hadith hadith narrators are highly defective in the levels of very real wrong or wickedness. The scholars of Hadith give varying definitions of this Munkar hadith. Among them there are two definitions that are always used, namely:

a. Sanadnya hadith contained in a narrator who is wrong, or often times forget and look real wickedness.
b. Hadith narrated by the hadith narrators da'eef is opposite to that reported by narrators who tsiqoh.

4. Hadith Mu'allal
Muallal hadith is defective because the narrators of Hadith al-WAHM, which is only a speculation or conjecture does not hold much water. For example, a narrator who suspect a sanad is muttashil (continued) which is actually munqathi '(disconnected), or that he mengirsalkan mutthasil, and memauqufkan the maru' and so on.

5. Mudraj Hadith.
Sesautu Idraj means to enter another one to the other and combine it, in other words mudraj Hadith is the Hadith in which there are additional words that are not part of the Hadith. Mudraj Hadith there are two, namely:
Mudraj isnad: "a peerawi added sentences of himself when he argued a case caused by a Hadith that the person who narrated further consider what she said was also part of the Hadith.
Mudraj Matan: something that is put in honor of a hadith which is not an honor of the tradition is, without any separation of them (ie the honor Tradition and what is included). Or insert a word of honor into a hadith narrators, so thought of saying those words berasalah Prophet.
6. Hadith Maqlub
Maqlub Hadith is a Hadith that replaces another lafadz lafadz with the sanad of hadith or matannya ith way of prioritizing or mengakhirknnya. In other words, no player feedback between honor and good sanad or diakhirkan precedence. In this case it is clear that the law can not be trtolak and a legal argument.

7. Hadith Mudhtharib
Hadith is a Hadith that diriwyatkan Mudhtharib in different forms, each equally strong.
8. Mushahaf Hadith is the Hadith that changed the sentence, which is narrated by the narrators who tsiqot, both lafadz and meaning of this Hadith has changed sanadnya and unisex changing matannya.
9. Syaz Hadith is the Hadith narrated by a narrator who Maqbul, the narrator of the dhabit, just and perfect goodness but is contrary to the Hadith Hadith related by other narrators are more tsiqot, fair and dhobit shingga rejected this hadith and hadith is also called the Hadith Mahfuz . [1] [13]

D. Using the law of Hadith da'eef
There are three scholars in the opinion of the practice and use da'eef Hadith:
Hadith da'eef absolutely not practiced, both on and ahkam fadhail and this is the opinion of most scholars, including Imam Bukhari and Muslim.
Tradition can be practiced da'eef absolutely, this is the opinion of Imam Ahmad and Abu Daud who prefer Hadith ra'yu da'eef than one.
Da'eef hadith can be used in fadhail mawa'iz or similar problems with the existing criteria. Ibn Hajar share them with criteria: ::
- kedhaifannyaa not too
- Da'eef Hadith Hadith which includes coverage of the subject that can be practiced.
- When practice it does not believe that he is strong but the status of mere caution. [1] [14].
E. Cover
Hadith Hadith da'eef is insufficient and hasan Saheeh requirements both in terms of sanad and matannya, the lower strength compared with the Hadith and the Saheeh Hadith Hasan.
Defect that causes a hadith to be da'eef divided to two types namely:
a. disconnection between a narrator with the other narrators in the sanad of the Hadith, which should be continued.
b. there are defects in the self seoang Hadith narrators or the honor of it.
Da'eef hadith which is divided into several kinds:

Hadith Mursal
Hadith Munqati '
Hadith Mudallas
Hadith Mu'addhal
Hadith Mu'allaq
Mudha'af Hadith.
Hadith Matruk
Munkar hadith.
Hadith Mu'allal
Mudraj Hadith.
Hadith Maqlub
Hadith Mudhtharib
Hadith Mushahaf
Hadith Syaz

AJuri, Sheikh Atiyah, Mustholahul Hadith. Jeddah: Haramain, tt.
Maturity, Izzudin, Minhaj as-Sholihin min al-Hadith al-Wali Songo Sunh Khatim al-Anbiyaa 'Wali Songo Mursalin. Beirut: Dar ICRS, tt.
Cashier, Al-Imam Ibn al-Hadith al-Sharh baits Overview Ulum al-Hadith. Beirut: Dar al-ICRS, tt.
Khatib, M. Ajjaj, Ushulul Hadith, the Principles of Science of Hadith, the original title: Usul al-Hadith, translated by: M.Qadirun Nur Ahmad Musyafiq. London: Style Media Pratama, 1998.
Mas'udi, Hafiz Hasan, Minhatu al-Hadith Mughits Mustholahul pill. Surabaya: Ahmad Nabni, tt.
Rahman, Fathur, Ikhisar Musthalahul Hadith. New York: Al-Ma'arif, 1991.
Yuslem, Nawir, Ulumul Hadith. Jakarta: PT Mutiara Widya Resources, 1997.

[1]. Nawir Yuslem, Ulumul Hadith (Jakarta: PT Mutiara Widya Resources, 1997), p. 236.
[2] Ibid
[3] Al-Imam Ibn cashier, al-Hadith al-Sharh baits endeavor 'Ulum al-Hadith "(Beirut: Dar al-ICRS, tt), p. 42.
[4] Hafiz Hasan Mas'udi, Minhatu al-Hadith Mughits Mustholahul pill (New York: Ahmad Nabni, tt) h. 10.
[5] Yuslem, p. 240.
[6] Fathur Rahman, Ikhisar Musthalahul Tradition (London: Al-Ma'arif, 1991), p. 181.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Ibid.
[9] M. Ajaj Khatib, Ushulul Hadith, p. 305-306.
[10] Izzudin maturity, Minhaj as-Sholihin min al-Hadith as-Sunnah Wali Songo Khatim al-Anbiyaa 'Wali Songo Mursalin (Beirut: Dar ICRS, tt), p. 49.
[11] Atiyah al-AJuri Syikh, Mustholahul Hadith (Jeddah: Haramain, tt), p. 58.
[12] Hafiz Hasan al-Ma'udi, p. 22.
[13] Yuslem, p. 256-277.
[14]. Ajjaj al-Khatib, Ushulul Hadith, the Principles of Science of Hadith, the original title: Usul al-Hadith translated by: M.Qadirun Nur Ahmad Musyafiq (New York: Style Media Pratama, 1998), p. 315-316

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